Global Warming is Good -- The HAB Theory
The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the theory. I hope that by listing mysteries the theory seems to explain I will inspire others to seriously consider the theory and its implications. The rest of this article contains spoilers, so if you want to read The HAB Theory cold, you should stop reading here. I will describe the HAB Theory and list some of the mysteries presented in the book, together with links to relevant Internet pages. Page numbers cited refer to the 2001 Authors Guild Backinprint.com edition of The HAB Theory.
The HAB Theory is a 1976 novel based on a theory presented by an engineer named Hugh Auchincloss Brown in his 1967 book Cataclysms of the Earth. Although Brown's theory was ignored by the scientific community, Eckert believed the theory was valid and wrote The HAB Theory to warn humanity of the impending catastrophe. He also wanted to emphasize the dangers of scientists being so specialized that they are unable to synthesize knowledge from other fields with knowledge from their own fields. As of 1998 Eckert was still "thoroughly convinced" of the theory's validity. (1998 letter) In The HAB Theory the theory is developed by a fictional character named Herbert A. Boardman. The theory's name reflects the initials of the real-life theorist as well as those of the fictional theorist.
So what is the HAB Theory? Imagine a ball spinning around an imaginary vertical axis. Now imagine dripping melted wax on the top off to one side from the center. For awhile the gyroscopic effect will keep the ball's spin stabilized around the original axis, but at some point when enough off-set wax has accumulated, centrifugal force will cause the ball to capsize so that the heaviest accumulation of wax is now at the ball's equator. The axis around which the ball is spinning will still be vertical, but the ball itself will have shifted almost ninety degrees so that some areas that used to be along its equator are now at the top and bottom, and some areas that used to be near the poles are now near the equator.
The HAB Theory says the Earth capsizes periodically due to the accumulation of ice near the poles. Warm, water-filled air from near the equator is carried by normal and persistent currents to the poles, where the moisture falls as snow and ice. It never gets warm enough at the poles for much of the ice to melt, thus the polar ice caps grow. The weight of the water added to the ice caps is huge. Antarctica grows by almost eighty-five billion tons of ice every month, far more than is sloughed off from the edges in an entire year. (p. 201) The ice is not evenly distributed around the Earth's axis of spin. Over time the off-center weight of the ice causes the Earth to capsize similarly to the ball with wax on it in the example.
The engineer who developed the theory thought it was interesting but unlikely to be true. He spent decades trying to disprove the theory but only found evidence supporting the theory. Working backward from the present he identified at least nine previous Earth capsizes. The shortest period between capsizes was about 3,000 years; the longest was about 7,000 years. When a capsize occurs the entire shift only takes three to four hours. (p. 158) Polar ice moves close to the equator and begins melting. Tropical regions move close to the poles and quickly freeze. There are floods, high winds, and much of the Earth's surface is violently restructured. Mountain ranges are thrust upward, oceans are redistributed, and continents are reshaped. The climactic and geographical chaos destroys existing civilizations and most life on the planet. Then the slow process of building civilizations and growing ice caps begins again.
When the capsize occurs the two pivot points experience the least destructive forces. Sometimes remnants of civilization are preserved near these pivots. Working backward the theorist calculated previous pivot points and previous ice caps. Previous pivot points include the area where Egypt is now and an area in the South American Andes. Three examples of previous ice caps are the Sudan Basin in Africa, Hudson Bay in Canada, and the Caspian Sea in Asia. (p. 161) Since the shift is always less than ninety degrees, and since the shift doesn't move the same way each time, the former ice caps and pivot points are scattered throughout the world.
It has now been over seven thousand years since the last capsizing, which is longer than any previously-identified period between capsizes. It could be that our contribution to global warming is melting the polar caps and saving us from the capsize that would have destroyed civilization had the ice caps continued to grow. If the HAB Theory is correct, then preventing the ice caps from growing is also preventing a capsize of the Earth. Global warming has many horrible consequences, but those consequences are preferable to a capsized Earth.
I find the theory so believable that the apparent lack of public scientific support for the theory is disturbing. The author, Allan W. Eckert, provides some insight into the lack of scientific support in his 1998 letter. He says, I interviewed many professional scientists in the fields mentioned and found, to both my delight and dismay, that while many agreed with some, if not all of Brown's postulations, all of them, without exception, said in essence, "...but don't quote me; I don't intend to have my career ruined!"
No one can say with any certainty whether the weight of polar ice could cause the Earth to capsize. I daresay a flexible, non-solid, spinning ball like the Earth reacts to the forces involved differently than a solid ball would. No one can know the result of how the interacting forces would resolve themselves on a planetary scale. There are only theories.
Eckert presents a great deal of evidence -- both far-fetched and compelling -- in support of the HAB Theory. I do not believe Eckert fabricated evidence. Instead, he included mysteries the HAB Theory might explain. These mysteries are sometimes exaggerated in the book -- by Eckert to make a better story or by Eckert's sources for the same reason.
The remainder of this article is an informal survey of selected HAB Theory evidence together with one or more Internet references for each item. The Internet references are offered to show that Eckert did not invent the items as well as to provide additional information. Determining the truth of the items listed is beyond the scope of this article. My list is not comprehensive and the sites referenced are not definitive. None of the items listed can prove that the Earth capsizes every few thousand years. However, if the Earth does capsize every few thousand years then the mysteries listed cease to be mysterious.
Enjoy the list. I hope it piques your interest in the HAB Theory. I welcome your comments.
Most of the evidence the book offers in support of the HAB Theory corroborates one or more of the following ideas:
1. There were advanced civilizations that disappeared along with their technology and knowledge;
2. The Earth's rotational orientation changed such that hot and cold areas switched positions, and the elevation of areas on the Earth's surface changed;
3. Man has existed for millions of years (many times longer than accepted timetables estimate), Man existed in places and times heretofore unknown, and Man has existed in previously-unknown forms.
I will repeat each idea and list selected items from the book related to that idea.
1. There were advanced civilizations that disappeared along with their technology and knowledge.
a. Ancient Peruvians made ornaments of smelted platinum. Platinum melts at over 3,150 degrees Fahrenheit, a temperature only achieved relatively recently using modern technology. (p. 254)
Platinum's melting point is 3221.6 °F. Goldandsilvermines.com says, Unlike gold and silver, which could be readily isolated in a comparatively pure state by simple fire refining, the platinum metals require complex aqueous chemical processing for their isolation and identification. Because these techniques were not available until the turn of the 19th century, the identification and isolation of the platinum group lagged behind silver and gold by thousands of years. In addition, the high melting points of these metals limited their applications until researchers in Britain, France, Germany, and Russia devised methods for consolidating and working platinum into useful forms. The fashioning of platinum into fine jewelry began about 1900....
Geotimes.org says, Because of platinum’s brittleness and high melting point, the Spaniards who colonized the area discarded platinum artifacts in favor of the tumbaga artifacts that could easily be melted and returned to Spain.
Encyclopedia Britannica Online says, In pre-Columbian America, gold, silver, and copper were the principal metals that were worked, with tin, lead, and platinum used less frequently.
Info Peru says, Ornaments of melted platinum have been unearthed from the Peruvian plateaus in the north which remained a secret since the melting point of the precious metal is 1800°C.
b. A metal astronomical computer from 65 BC was found near the Greek island of Antikythera. (p. 254, 420)
This anachronistic device is known as the "Antikythera Mechanism". It has been studied extensively. Here are some articles about it.
Nature.com: In search of lost time by Jo Marchant
Wikipedia: Antikythera mechanism
BBC News: Ancient Moon 'computer' revisited by Jonathan Fildes
c. Chinese General Chow Chu (316 AD) was entombed wearing an aluminum girdle. The western world did not isolate aluminum until 1825. (p. 254)
Sophisticated Metallurgical Skills in Ancients says, The tomb of the Chinese general Chow Chu (A.D. 265-316) presents a mystery. When analyzed by the spectroscope, a metal girdle showed 10 percent copper, 5 percent manganese, and 85 percent aluminum. But according to the history of science aluminum was obtained for the first time by Oersted in 1825 by a chemical method. We are Not the First, by Andrew Tomas, 1971 is cited as the source.
d. Ancient Egyptians and Babylonians of 3,000 years ago knew about the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, which can't be seen without a telescope. Galileo invented the telescope in 1610. (p. 254)
The Naked Eye Planets in the Night Sky confirms that neither Saturn's nor Jupiter's moons can be seen with the naked eye. [This citation was corrected on July 2, 2007. See first comment below. - Jon Maloney]
I found several references to the Dogon people of Mali knowing of the moons of Jupiter, although the allegation is controversial. The Sirius Mystery by Paul Roland says The connection with the Dogon comes about through separate independent studies by various anthropologists who have traced the Dogon line back to these ancient civilisations [Babylon, Sumeria and Egypt]. The Sirius Mystery (at Amazon)
e. An obviously-manufactured iron cube weighing 785 grams, with two convex sides, four perfectly-square sides, and with a precise groove traversing the edges was discovered in 1877 in lower Austria inside a block of coal. In 1885 a smaller, but otherwise identical, cube was discovered in a block of coal in upper Austria. (p. 269)
Strange Relics from the Depths of the Earth by J.R. Jochmans says, In the fall of 1885, at an iron foundry owned by the sons of Herr Isidor Braun located in Schondorf near Bocklabruck, Upper Austria, a workman named Riedl was breaking up a block of Tertiary brown coal that had been mined from the pits at Wolfsegg, near Schwannstadt, and was about to be used to heat the foundry's giant smelters. As the block disintegrated into several pieces, out dropped a strange cube-like object. In 1886, mining engineer Dr. Adolf Gurlt made a report to the Natural History Society at Bonn, Germany and noted that the object, coated with a thin layer of rust, is made of iron, measures 2.64 by 2.64 by 1.85 inches, weighs 1.73 Ibs., and has a specific gravity measurement of 7.75. Four of the iron "cube's" sides are roughly flat, while the two remaining sides - opposite each other - are convex. A fairly deep groove was incised all the way around the object, about mid-way up its height. Other early studies on the iron artifact were in scientific journals of the day as Nature (London; November 11, 1886, page 36) and L'Astronomie (Paris; 1886, page 463). A plaster cast was also made before the turn of the century -important because the original object subsequently suffered from handling, and from being disfigured by samples having been cut from it by investigators for research. The cast is kept in the Oberosterreichisehes Landesmuseum in Linz, Austria, where the original object was also exhibited from 1950 to 1958. The iron cube is presently in the custody of Herrn O.R. Bernhardt of the Heimathaus Museum in Vocklabruck.
In 1966-67, the iron "cube" was carefully analyzed by experts at the Vienna Naturhistorisehes Museum, using electron-beam microanalysis. They found no traces of nickel, chromium or cobalt in the iron - which means the object was not of meteoric origin. No sulfur was detected either, ruling out the chance of it being a pyrite, a natural mineral that sometimes forms geometric shapes. Because of a low magnesium content, Dr. Kurat of the Museum, and Dr. R. Gill of the Geologisehe Bundesanstalt of Vienna, are of the opinion that the object was made of cast-iron. In 1973, Hubert Mattlianer concluded from yet another detailed investigation that the object had been made from a hand-sculptured lump of wax or clay pressed into a sand base, this forming the mold into which the iron had been poured.
The final conclusion, then, is that the strange object is definitely man-made. What is not explained is what it was doing encased in coal dating to the Tertiary - 60 million years old.
f. In 1921 a human skull was unearthed in a Rhodesian mine 60 feet beneath the surface. The skull has been carbon-14 dated to be 38,000 years old. The skull has two holes consistent with a bullet's entry and exit. An analysis of the holes indicated whatever made them is what killed the man. They could not have been made after death. (p. 271, 415)
Strange relics of the ancient world says, In 1921 the discovery of a Neanderthal skull in Rhodesia revealed an astonishing mystery. The skull had been pierced by a high velocity projectile, similar to a bullet. Mysterious, because it was disclosed that this injury must have occurred at the moment of death, and not afterwards. It meant that whoever fired the fatal bullet must have fired it many thousands of years ago. In his book Secrets of the Lost Races, author Rene Noorbergen had the following to say: "A German forensic authority from Berlin has positively stated that the cranial damage to Rhodesian man's skull could not have been caused by anything but a bullet."
The fact that the skull was found fully 60 feet below the surface of the ground attested to the fact that this was no recent injury, and experts were baffled. Even so certain conclusions seemed obvious: The most apparent of these was that in times considered too remote for intelligent life, this creature had been gunned down by a high velocity weapon. The neat entry point of the wound testified to the great speed of the projectile, which had created a perfectly rounded hole.
Broken Hill Rhodesian Man New insight into an old skull refutes the theory that the item is a Neanderthal skull with a bullet hole.
Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 2, Chapter 18, Ancient Man also refutes the above theory.
g. The powerful, highly-cultured civilization of ancient Egypt has no known foundation. It was already an advanced civilization at our earliest recordings of human history. We trace its history through thirty-one dynasties, from 332 BC back to 3188 BC. There are no records of stories or mythologies prior to 3188 BC. In what is called the first dynasty, under King Menes, Egypt is at its zenith in painting, sculpture, and architecture. From its earliest known existence to 332 BC the civilization was in decline. It's as if the Egyptians inherited a great civilization but could not improve or maintain it. (p. 378)
Egyptian History: Dawn of Egyptian Culture says, Remarkably the structure of the writing system was almost finished in the first dynasty and thus was a product of a development that had been going on for an unknown period of time. Remnants from the earlier stages has not been found and several attempts to derive hieroglyphs from the so called "pot marks" made on ceramic vessels, has not been successful so far. The options are two: writing can in the earliest times have been made on material that has decayed, or the system has been imported from abroad. No traces outside or inside Egypt can confirm any of these suggestions.
h. The skeleton of an ancient bison-like animal called an auroch was discovered in Russia. The auroch has what appears to be a bullet hole in the center of its forehead. The hole is the size of a .44 caliber bullet. (p. 415)
OOPARTS (out of place artifacts) says, An Auroch is an large, extinct "buffalo like" animal. Many skeletons of this extinct type have been found in Europe.
What is remarkable about one in particular in the Moscow Museum of Paleontology is that it has a bullet hole in its skull. The hole is round, without radial cracks that would result from slower projectiles like spears and arrows. The only known projectile that leaves this kind of smooth, round hole without radial cracks is a bullet because of its velocity.
I mention the auroch first because of a possible objection that can be raised. If it is indeed a bullet hole, perhaps the skeleton was shot many, many years after the animals' death. The problem here is that the auroch survived the wound and lived long enough for unmistakable calcification to appear at the site of the injury.
i. In 1938 a German archaeologist named Wilhelm Konig discovered urns used as batteries at the site of ancient Babylonia, near Baghdad, Iraq. In 1946 Willard Gray, a scientist at General Electric, studied Konig's find, replicated it, and had working batteries. (p. 421)
Wikipedia: Baghdad Battery is a good article on the subject.
j. Ancient Indian writings called Agastya Samhita describe how to build a battery, translated as follows, Place a well-cleaned copper plate in an earthenware vessel. Cover it first by copper sulfate and then by moist sawdust. After that, put a mercury-amalgamated zinc sheet on top of the sawdust to avoid polarization. The contact will produce an energy known by the twin name of Mitra-Varuna. Water will be split by this current into Pranavayu and Udanavayu. A chain of one hundred jars is said to give a very effective force. (p. 422)
Chinmaya Yuva Kendra: We Beat the World at Batteries says, An interesting procedure, that gives proof for the usage and preparation of the battery cell is recorded in Agastya Samhita. The following lines illustrate the electrical cell. "Place copper plates in an earthern pot, cover it with copper sulphate and Moistened saw dust. Spread zinc powder and cover it with mercury. Due to Chemical reaction, +ve and –ve electricity is produced. He further says that this water is decomposed in to Oxygen and Hydrogen."
k. Ancient Egyptian pyramids and tombs often have detailed, intricate paintings on the walls far from any available natural light, yet there is no smoke or soot residue that would have been left by torches or lamps. Archaeologists wonder if the Egyptians used electric lights. (p. 220)
Hesire’s Flashlight by Bill McNulty says, Some Egyptologists have theorized that sunlight was bounced off crude mirrors to see while pyramid and tomb chambers were built. These large ancient Egyptian mirrors have never been found. These mythical mirrors supposedly could bounce light into chambers up to 120 metres long as workers moved in and out during construction.
Ancient Egyptian tombs do not have accumulated soot on their ceilings you’d expect if torches or candles were used during construction. Some have suggested oil lamps with a little bit of salt added to the oil kept the lamps from discharging soot. A more likely explanation of how the Ancient Egyptians lighted dark tomb chambers is a light source which has been lost to history.
l. The 3,500 year old Indian book called Sactya Grantham describes how to vaccinate against smallpox. It says, Take on the tip of a knife the contents of the pox inflammation and inject it into the arm of a well man, mixing it with his blood. A fever will follow, but the malady will pass very easily and will create no complications. Thereafter, the second man will forever be rendered invulnerable to the same disease. Edward Jenner is credited with discovering how to vaccinate against smallpox in 1796. There are references to the use of penicillin in ancient Thebes. References have also been found of medical x-rays in China in 206 BC and use of a fluoroscope in India in 500 BC. The Indian physician Jivaka wrote, placed before a patient, it illuminated his body as a lamp illuminates the objects inside a house; it revealed the nature of maladies. These advanced medical practices were old knowledge in ancient times. Rather than being new discoveries then, they appear to be the remnants of much greater medical knowledge that was dying out. (p. 426)
Hindu Wisdom references the same quotation about smallpox vaccinations.
Dead Men's Secrets by Jonathan Gray mentions both the ancient Chinese x-rays and the ancient Indian fluoroscope. Dead Men's Secrets (at Amazon)
m. A tunnel complex was discovered in the Andes in 1965 by an Argentinean archaeologist named Juan Moricz. There are thousands of miles of tunnels at different depths -- 250 feet, 500 feet, and 750 feet. Only a few hundred miles have been cursorily explored. There are countless chambers containing artifacts. One chamber measures 492 x 459 feet and has a large table in the center. The table is surrounded by seven chairs made of an unknown material. Fifty feet from the table is a library of thousands of metal pages, each page standing on a block made of the same material from which the chairs were made. Each page measures about 38 x 19 x 0.24 inches. In a special niche there's a thicker page that appears to be a key of 56 different characters. Only a few random pages were translated and their contents were kept secret. (p. 402-406)
The thousands of miles of artificially-made tunnels and the metal library have never been proven to exist. There are several Internet articles about the tunnels and the library:
Nexus: The Quest For The Metal Library,
Tayos Gold Library: Magyars, Moricz and Mother Language,
Wikipedia: Cueva de los Tayos.
2. The Earth's rotational orientation changed such that hot and cold areas switched positions, and the elevation of areas on the Earth's surface changed.
a. Mammoths and rhinoceroses have been found quick-frozen in northern Siberia, some still in standing positions with tropical plants in their mouths and stomachs. (p. 159, 254) Mammoth remains have been found in the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, Siberia on both sides of the Bering Strait, on the New Siberian Islands, and on Wrangel Island. These areas are only connected by frigid seas. There's no present way mammoths could have moved among these points. (p. 381-382)
Center for Scientific Creation lists details about the frozen mammoth and rhinoceros finds, including a map and photographs.
Frozen mammoth carcasses in Siberia by Michael Oard discusses mammoth finds in detail (from Frozen in Time: The Woolly Mammoth, the Ice Age, and the Bible by Michael Oard, 2004).
Other good information.
OOPARTS (out of place artifacts) The Boneyards: The Beresovka Mammoth Problem...
The extinction of the woolly mammoth: was it a quick freeze? by Michael Oard.
The Antiquity of Man: Tracing Graham Hancock's Shifting Cataclysm by Mikey Brass disputes that mammoths were quick-frozen.
b. Ocean floors are covered with ancient river beds that could not have been created by ocean currents. (p. 254)
A Journey to a New Land mentions ancient river beds and forests on ocean floors.
Sweeping the Ocean's Floor also mentions ancient river channels on the floor of the ocean.
Ask A Scientist: Ocean River Beds says that apparent river beds on the ocean floor are not river beds.
c. An ancient Chinese book, The Story of the Ten Stems, tells how the country made a flying leap to the Arctic and remained there for 3,000 years. There was death and destruction and most people died, but 3,000 years later the country made another flying leap to its present location.
I found few references to anything resembling this story. On the page Chapter Eleven: Mythologies of the World I found the following, The Chinese legend of the "Ten Stems," tells us of the earth in this chaotic condition. At the Sixth Stem, Darkness and the Light unite with injurious effects-all things become solid, (frozen) and the Darkness destroys the growth of all things (the beginning of the ice age). At the Seventh Stem, the Darkness nips all things. At the Ninth Stem, the Light begins to nourish all things in the recesses below (the sun reappears).
d. The Greek historian Herodotus (about 450 BC) journeyed to Memphis and Thebes. The Memphis priests told him their records went back 11,000 years. The priests in Thebes told him their records went back 17,000 years. Some of what Herodotus recorded has been dismissed as nonsense, but some of those writings might make sense in light of the HAB theory. If you were near one of the pivot points at the time the Earth capsized, the sun would not rise and set normally. It could rise in the east and set in the north for example. Or it could rise and set in the same direction if the Earth capsized and shifted in certain ways during the capsize. According to Herodotus, the priests in Memphis told him that during their 11,000 year history the sun had set where it had risen twice. (p. 383-384)
The site Saturn thru the Ages says, During this time, they said, there were four times when the sun rose out of his wonted place---twice rising where now he sets, and twice setting where now he rises---and, say the priests, nothing became different among the Egyptians, for all these disturbances, neither products of the Earth nor products of the river, nor yet in respect of diseases or death. The source cited is: The History/Herodotus Translated by David Grene. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1987. Book 2. Line 142.
e. In Yellowstone National Park mountainsides reveal seventeen layers of vertical trees, with rock between each layer. (p. 160)
The Yellowstone petrified forests by Jonathan Sarfati describes these tree layers.
f. Fossils of sea creatures have been found high in the Rocky Mountains, the Andes, and the Himalayas. (p. 160)
Such fossils are mentioned on these pages:
Famous Fossils from a Mountaintop by Harold G. Coffin,
Time: The Big, Cool Sea, and
Visual Evidences of Himalayan Formation.
g. In 1938 a Chinese archaeologist, Professor Chi Pu Tei made a discovery in the Bayan Kara Ula Mountains of China near the Tibetan border. He discovered a series of artificial tunnels and storerooms. The tunnels are perfectly squared and the walls, ceilings, and floors are highly glazed as if the rock was melted, similar to the effect you would get if you stuck a red-hot nail into a block of wax. He discovered many large chambers, strange implements, and stone disks of uniform size and features. Each disk was 22.7 cm in diameter and 2 cm thick (about 9 inches in diameter and ¾ of an inch thick). Each disk had a circular hole in the center 2 cm across. Each disk had regular indentations all around the edge and a twin groove that spiraled out from the center in an ever-widening circle until it reached the edge. The actual grooves were slightly different from disk to disk. There were 716 disks found and taken to the Peking Academy of Prehistory for study. The disks were found to contain a high cobalt content and a high metallic content. They appeared to be part of a sophisticated electrical system. The grooves were discovered not to be sound recordings but writing so tiny as to be almost microscopic. The disks are 11,500 to 7,500 years old, making them the oldest known writings. Although studied intensely no progress was made on translating the writing until 24 years later in 1962. In 1965 a Russian philologist, Vyacheslav Saizev, published an article in Sputnik magazine about the disks including the translated content from one disk. It told a story of people called the Dropa who landed in spaceships. They cut the tunnels into the mountains, warned the inhabitants of a huge flood coming, and left to go to "the other safe place". A later disk said the Dropa's space ship was severely damaged in the "turning of the earth" and could not be replaced. (p. 397-400)
I was sorry Eckert introduced space aliens in support of the HAB Theory, but I guess he had to since their alleged message offers such strong support -- namely, that in the coming flood there was one other safe place (which would correspond to the second pivot point), the fact that their ship was damaged in the "turning of the earth", and the fact that the most recent stone disk dated 7,500 years old (the time of the last capsize). Of course the whole story about the tunnels, implements, disks, and Dropa is quite controversial. A Google search for -- Dropa stone disks -- yields 139,000 hits. Here are a few pages:
Dropa Stone Discs,
The Strange Stone Discs of Baian-Kara-Ula,
h. A map in the National Museum of Turkey was drawn by Piri Ibn Haji Memmed (called Piri Re'is), and presented to Sultan Yavuz Selim in 1517. The map shows the southwestern coast of Europe, the western coast of Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, and part of North America, South America, and Antarctica. The map shows South America's inland river systems and other details as far as the eastern slopes of the Andes. Between 1492 and 1498 Columbus only visited the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Haiti. The only other known explorer who visited the Americas prior to the map's being drawn was Amerigo Vespucci who sailed down the Brazilian coast in 1501, however he made no inland explorations. The map shows northern Antarctica without ice, including interior rivers and mountains. According to accepted scientific timetables the Antarctic ice cap is over thirteen million years old, yet the Piri Re'is map shows Antarctica without ice. Another map by the same man, drawn in 1528, shows the north Atlantic. It shows Greenland as two islands with no ice cap. The scientific world did not know that Greenland was two islands until a Frenchman, Dr. Paul-Emile Victor proved it with seismic readings on an expedition in 1947-1949. Accepted scientific timetables show the Greenland ice cap is just as old as the Antarctic ice cap. A Swedish scientist, Dr. Adolf Erik Nordenskjold studied the Piri Re'is maps and discovered that they were not original, but copies of much older maps. Nordenskjold believed they were copies of maps drawn by Ptolemy, and he believed Ptolemy's maps were copies of even older maps. The Piri Re'is map had notes written in the margins. One note said that Antarctica was a very hot place inhabited by large snakes. Other notes say the map was drawn using a map from the period of Alexander the great plus twenty other maps of great antiquity. The evidence suggests that the maps from which the Piri Re'is map was made, were drawn prior to the last capsizing when Antarctica was tropical. Other scientists have studied the map and believe it is based on high-altitude aerial photography from at least 100 miles up. The map matches satellite photographs even to the point of continental distortions around the edges due to the curvature of the Earth. (p. 448-462)
The source of data for the Piri Re'is maps and what the maps show are the subject of much controversy. Here are some articles.
Strange Artifacts: The Piri Reis Map.
Internet Sacred Text Archive: The Piri Re'is Map.
Wikipedia: The Piri Reis Map.
Greenland, a territory apart says, In fact, it is only very recently that the discovery was made that underneath the icecap, Greenland is made up of three islands.
i. In 1949 Dr. Jack Hough accompanied Admiral Byrd on his Antarctic expedition and took core samples from the bed of the Ross Sea. Analysis of the core samples at the Carnegie Institute by W. D. Urry showed that Antarctica's last warm period with flowing rivers was 6,000 years ago, about 1,500 years after the last capsize estimated by the HAB Theory, indicating that it took about 1,500 years for Antarctica's ice cap to form. (p. 457-458)
Fingerprints of the Gods: Exhibit 7 confirms that an Antarctic river flowed into the Ross Sea as recently as 6,000 years ago. Fingerprints of the Gods (at Amazon)
Fingerprints of the Gods: Exhibit 7, The Ross Sea Cores says that Exhibit 7 is inconclsuive.
j. Another Turkish map drawn by Hadji Ahmed in 1559 from different ancient maps, show Alaska and Siberia as being a solid land mass a thousand miles wide. The implication is that the map Ahmed copied had been made prior to the last capsizing of the Earth. (p. 461)
The Witness of Anthropology (lecture two) by Jonathan Gray says, This next map the "Hadji Ahmed map," copied in 1559 shows Antarctica and the Pacific coast of the United States of America with extreme accuracy. It also depicts the land bridge that once existed between Siberia and Alaska.
k. In 1968 scientists at the Alert weather station on Ellesmere Island, Canada, 475 miles from the North Pole, discovered a huge magnetic object seismologically measured to be 65 miles long and 64 miles thick whose nearest edge is 15 miles deep. (p. 428)
Destiny Matrix says, In his book Atlantis Rising (Dell, 1976), renowned paranormal and UFO researcher Brad Steiger mentioned a 1965 paper presented by Canadian geophysicist John M. DeLaurier of the Dominion of Canada Observatory. According to this scientist, there was something strange going on beneath the ground at Ellesmere Island, a barren location mostly covered by glacial icecap and roamed by herds of caribou and musk oxen. Professor DeLaurier's paper discussed the existence of a structure so vast that it defied imagination—a quasi-cylindrical loaf of an object measuring 65 miles long by 65 miles thick at a staggering depth of 80 miles. The huge structure had been detected by seismic equipment located at Alert, one of the U.S.-Canadian Distant Early Warning (DEW) stations in the Arctic wilderness. Studies showed that the object, which straddled the earth's mantle and crust, was the source of some sort of disturbance—similar to the situation encountered at Lake Vostok 30-odd years later—affecting the magnetic field at the Alert facility and inducing a strong flow of electricity.
3. Man has existed for millions of years (many times longer than accepted timetables estimate), Man existed in places and times heretofore unknown, and Man has existed in previously-unknown forms.
a. Footprints imprinted in 15-million-year-old sandstone were found in Nevada. The shoe imprint is so detailed that the stitching threads around the sole are visible. (p. 254)
Nevada Shoe Print? analyzes the print and says the fossil's identification as a shoe print is inconclusive.
b. In 1833 soldiers in California discovered the skeleton of a twelve-foot tall human. The skull contained double rows of both upper and lower teeth. (p. 254)
Giant Human Remains - From records and sources all over the world says, In 1833,soldiers digging a pit for a powder magazine at Lompock Rancho, California, hacked their way through a layer of cemented gravel and came up with the skeleton of a giant man about twelve feet tall. The skeleton was surrounded by carved shells, huge stone axes, and blocks of porphyry covered with unintelligible symbols. The giant was also noteworthy in still another respect. He had a double row of teeth, both upper and lower. When the natives began to attach some religious significance to the find, authorities ordered the skeleton and all the artifacts secretly reburied and, of course, lost to the scientific study they deserved. (This site lists dozens of discoveries of giants.)
c. Several giant human footprints were discovered in granite near Brayton, in Bledsoe County Tennessee. The granite is hundreds of millions of years old. One footprint's bare heel is 13 inches wide. (p. 270)
OOPARTS (out of place artifacts) says, Near Braytown, on the headwaters of the Tennessee river, were found some remarkable footprints impressed in what is now solid rock. The tracks included those of a human heel ball thirteen inches wide! The marks clearly showed that the fellow whose stride in that distant day turned to stone had six toes on each foot. Stranger than Science, by Frank Edwards.
d. In 1952 an ancient amphitheater containing many anachronistic sculptures was discovered in Peru by Dr. Daniel Ruzo. There were sculptures of camels, lions, elephants and other animals never known to have lived in South America. There were also finely carved heads of Semites, Caucasians, and Negroes, all of whom arrived in South America less than 500 years ago. One sculpture is of an amphicelydia, a prehistoric ancestor of the turtle, which has been extinct for over 180 million years. There is also a horse, although horses became extinct in South America over 9,000 years ago, and were reintroduced in the 1500s. (p. 270)
This claim appears to be true but exaggerated. The stone images are so worn that the images must be interpreted. The site Ancient Archaeology: Marcahuasi says, ...the number of possible images in Marcahuasi case is in the dozens anyway, and probably in the hundreds. Where each individual case might be disputed, this becomes increasingly difficult with the rising number, especially since the stylistic similarities between them are considerable. So the only weak point to the claim that the Marcahuasi images are real and objective is the fact that some effort at visualization has to be made.
e. Luther Cressman of the University of Oregon discovered Lamos Cave in Nevada, which contained 200 pairs of neatly-stacked woven sandals dated to be from 7,030 BC by carbon-14 dating. (p. 413)
Some facts in this item seem to be wrong, but the main facts are correct -- that Cressman discovered many pairs of sandals that were about 9,000 years old. The site Pre-Indian Caucasoids in America by Colin, Son of Þeedrich says, The Fork Rock Cave in Oregon has been in the middle of ongoing new discoveries. The cave itself is small -- only thirty-five feet wide and sixty-five feet long. It was here in 1938 that about seventy pairs of sandals made of sagebrush were discovered by Luther S. Cressman. Radio-carbon dating technology dated the sandals at nine thousand years old (fortunately, the sandals were preserved until radio-carbon dating was invented).
f. In the 1920s vases were found near Pisco, Peru that were painted with five-toed llamas, yet modern-day llamas have only two toes. (p. 413)
The Geologic Column by Bill Fraser states, Fact- Five-toed llamas were said to have been extinct about 30 million years ago. Archaeologists have found pottery items marked with pictures of five-toed llamas associated with the Tiahuanacan culture.
Similarly, in Dinosaurs and Humans: Ica Stones citing Alejandro Pezzia Asserto. Ica y el Peru Precolombino. Volume I (Ica: 1968), p. 25ff., says, In 1968, Alejandro Pezzia Asserto published his work with drawings and descriptions of the stones with a five-toed llama that was supposed to be extinct for over forty million years.
g. The scientific community (geologists, anthropologists, archaeologists) agree that Man did not live more than 1.7 million years ago. In 1924 the Doheny Scientific Expedition discovered an ancient painting in Arizona, depicting a Tyrannosaurus rex attacking a human being. (p. 429)
The Chronology of Man citing The Columbia History of the World, 1972, published by Harper & Row, edited by John A. Garraty & Peter Gay, shows the first two entries in Man's chronology as,
B.C. 4,000,000 - Earliest known homonids
B.C. 1,750,000 - Definite stone tools.
Apologetics Press - Walking Amidst the Dinosaurs says, In the late 1800s, Samuel Hubbard, honorary curator of archaeology at the Oakland, California, Museum of Natural History, was excavating ancient Indian dwellings in the Hava Supai Canyon in Arizona. On the walls of the canyon where the Indians’ ancestors once lived, Dr. Hubbard found elegant drawings of an elephant, an ibex, a dinosaur, and other animals. He stated concerning the dinosaur drawing: “Taken all in all, the proportions are good.” He further suggested that the huge reptile is “depicted in the attitude in which man would be most likely to see it—reared on its hind legs, balancing with the long tail, either feeding or in fighting position, possibly defending itself against a party of men” (as quoted in Verrill, 1954, pp. 155ff.).
The same article says, An article in the January 1993 National Geographic boldly proclaimed: “No human being has ever seen a live dinosaur” (“Age of the Dinosaurs,” 1993, 183:142).
h. An ancient rock carving on a cliff overlooking the Big Sandy River in Oregon depicts a stegosaurus. (p. 429)
The Doheny Scientific Expedition to the Hava Supai Canyon, Northern Arizona has a supplement that contains an illustrated discussion of the carving.
i. A painting on ancient ceramic pottery discovered in Panama depicts flying pterodactyls. (p. 429)
Lying Amidst The Dinosaurs refutes the interpretation of the picture as a pterodactyl in an illustrated discussion of the find.
j. A stone calendar from Peru has the sculptured heads of toxidons, mammals that have been extinct for over 13 million years. (p. 429)
This item must be referring to the Gateway of the Sun in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia. The Crystalinks page Tiahuanaco, Bolivia says, The 10 ton Gateway of the Sun is monolithic, carved from a single block of Andesite granite, and is broken right down the center. Its upper portion is deeply carved with beautiful and intricate designs, including a human figure, condors, toxodons, elephants and some symbols.... This huge monument is hewn from a single block of stone, and some believe that the strange symbols might represent a calendar, the oldest in the world.