May 31, 2007

Global Warming is Good -- The HAB Theory

(Updated to replace broken links: July 15, 2017.)

I recently read The HAB Theory by Allan W. Eckert. The book presents a gripping theory about the Earth's history. I find the theory plausible and intuitively believable. It seems to be more deserving of belief than disbelief. The theory explains such scientific anomalies as how mammoths with warm-climate plants in their mouths and stomachs were quick-frozen in Siberia, how a manufactured metal cube was discovered inside a block of coal in Austria, how an ancient bison discovered in Russia appears to have been killed by a gunshot, and many others. More than half of the book is a romance which I found boring, but the rest of the book is mind-boggling. I have not found a compelling reason to disbelieve the HAB Theory, thus the title of this post. Global warming may be all that's enabling civilization to continue.

The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the theory. I hope that by listing mysteries the theory seems to explain I will inspire others to seriously consider the theory and its implications. The rest of this article contains spoilers, so if you want to read The HAB Theory cold, you should stop reading here. I will describe the HAB Theory and list some of the mysteries presented in the book, together with links to relevant Internet pages. Page numbers cited refer to the 2001 Authors Guild Backinprint.com edition of The HAB Theory.

The HAB Theory is a 1976 novel based on a theory presented by an engineer named Hugh Auchincloss Brown in his 1967 book Cataclysms of the Earth. Although Brown's theory was ignored by the scientific community, Eckert believed the theory was valid and wrote The HAB Theory to warn humanity of the impending catastrophe. He also wanted to emphasize the dangers of scientists being so specialized that they are unable to synthesize knowledge from other fields with knowledge from their own fields. As of 1998 Eckert was still "thoroughly convinced" of the theory's validity. (1998 letter) In The HAB Theory the theory is developed by a fictional character named Herbert A. Boardman. The theory's name reflects the initials of the real-life theorist as well as those of the fictional theorist.

So what is the HAB Theory? Imagine a ball spinning around an imaginary vertical axis. Now imagine dripping melted wax on the top off to one side from the center. For awhile the gyroscopic effect will keep the ball's spin stabilized around the original axis, but at some point when enough off-set wax has accumulated, centrifugal force will cause the ball to capsize so that the heaviest accumulation of wax is now at the ball's equator. The axis around which the ball is spinning will still be vertical, but the ball itself will have shifted almost ninety degrees so that some areas that used to be along its equator are now at the top and bottom, and some areas that used to be near the poles are now near the equator.

The HAB Theory says the Earth capsizes periodically due to the accumulation of ice near the poles. Warm, water-filled air from near the equator is carried by normal and persistent currents to the poles, where the moisture falls as snow and ice. It never gets warm enough at the poles for much of the ice to melt, thus the polar ice caps grow. The weight of the water added to the ice caps is huge. Antarctica grows by almost eighty-five billion tons of ice every month, far more than is sloughed off from the edges in an entire year. (p. 201) The ice is not evenly distributed around the Earth's axis of spin. Over time the off-center weight of the ice causes the Earth to capsize similarly to the ball with wax on it in the example.

The engineer who developed the theory thought it was interesting but unlikely to be true. He spent decades trying to disprove the theory but only found evidence supporting the theory. Working backward from the present he identified at least nine previous Earth capsizes. The shortest period between capsizes was about 3,000 years; the longest was about 7,000 years. When a capsize occurs the entire shift only takes three to four hours. (p. 158) Polar ice moves close to the equator and begins melting. Tropical regions move close to the poles and quickly freeze. There are floods, high winds, and much of the Earth's surface is violently restructured. Mountain ranges are thrust upward, oceans are redistributed, and continents are reshaped. The climactic and geographical chaos destroys existing civilizations and most life on the planet. Then the slow process of building civilizations and growing ice caps begins again.

When the capsize occurs the two pivot points experience the least destructive forces. Sometimes remnants of civilization are preserved near these pivots. Working backward the theorist calculated previous pivot points and previous ice caps. Previous pivot points include the area where Egypt is now and an area in the South American Andes. Three examples of previous ice caps are the Sudan Basin in Africa, Hudson Bay in Canada, and the Caspian Sea in Asia. (p. 161) Since the shift is always less than ninety degrees, and since the shift doesn't move the same way each time, the former ice caps and pivot points are scattered throughout the world.

It has now been over seven thousand years since the last capsizing, which is longer than any previously-identified period between capsizes. It could be that our contribution to global warming is melting the polar caps and saving us from the capsize that would have destroyed civilization had the ice caps continued to grow. If the HAB Theory is correct, then preventing the ice caps from growing is also preventing a capsize of the Earth. Global warming has many horrible consequences, but those consequences are preferable to a capsized Earth.

I find the theory so believable that the apparent lack of public scientific support for the theory is disturbing. The author, Allan W. Eckert, provides some insight into the lack of scientific support in his 1998 letter. He says, I interviewed many professional scientists in the fields mentioned and found, to both my delight and dismay, that while many agreed with some, if not all of Brown's postulations, all of them, without exception, said in essence, "...but don't quote me; I don't intend to have my career ruined!"

No one can say with any certainty whether the weight of polar ice could cause the Earth to capsize. I daresay a flexible, non-solid, spinning ball like the Earth reacts to the forces involved differently than a solid ball would. No one can know the result of how the interacting forces would resolve themselves on a planetary scale. There are only theories.

Eckert presents a great deal of evidence -- both far-fetched and compelling -- in support of the HAB Theory. I do not believe Eckert fabricated evidence. Instead, he included mysteries the HAB Theory might explain. These mysteries are sometimes exaggerated in the book -- by Eckert to make a better story or by Eckert's sources for the same reason.

The remainder of this article is an informal survey of selected HAB Theory evidence together with one or more Internet references for each item. The Internet references are offered to show that Eckert did not invent the items as well as to provide additional information. Determining the truth of the items listed is beyond the scope of this article. My list is not comprehensive and the sites referenced are not definitive. None of the items listed can prove that the Earth capsizes every few thousand years. However, if the Earth does capsize every few thousand years then the mysteries listed cease to be mysterious.

Enjoy the list. I hope it piques your interest in the HAB Theory. I welcome your comments.

Jon Maloney
May 2007




Most of the evidence the book offers in support of the HAB Theory corroborates one or more of the following ideas:

1. There were advanced civilizations that disappeared along with their technology and knowledge;

2. The Earth's rotational orientation changed such that hot and cold areas switched positions, and the elevation of areas on the Earth's surface changed;

3. Man has existed for millions of years (many times longer than accepted timetables estimate), Man existed in places and times heretofore unknown, and Man has existed in previously-unknown forms.


I will repeat each idea and list selected items from the book related to that idea.




1. There were advanced civilizations that disappeared along with their technology and knowledge.

a. Ancient Peruvians made ornaments of smelted platinum. Platinum melts at over 3,150 degrees Fahrenheit, a temperature only achieved relatively recently using modern technology. (p. 254)

Platinum's melting point is 3221.6 °F. Goldandsilvermines.com says, Unlike gold and silver, which could be readily isolated in a comparatively pure state by simple fire refining, the platinum metals require complex aqueous chemical processing for their isolation and identification. Because these techniques were not available until the turn of the 19th century, the identification and isolation of the platinum group lagged behind silver and gold by thousands of years. In addition, the high melting points of these metals limited their applications until researchers in Britain, France, Germany, and Russia devised methods for consolidating and working platinum into useful forms. The fashioning of platinum into fine jewelry began about 1900....

Geotimes.org says, Because of platinum’s brittleness and high melting point, the Spaniards who colonized the area discarded platinum artifacts in favor of the tumbaga artifacts that could easily be melted and returned to Spain.

Encyclopedia Britannica Online says, In pre-Columbian America, gold, silver, and copper were the principal metals that were worked, with tin, lead, and platinum used less frequently.

Peru: Striking Facts says, Ornaments of melted platinum have been unearthed from the Peruvian plateaus in the north which remains a secret since the melting point of the precious metal is 1800°C.


b. A metal astronomical computer from 65 BC was found near the Greek island of Antikythera. (p. 254, 420)

This anachronistic device is known as the "Antikythera Mechanism". It has been studied extensively. Here are some articles about it.
Nature.com: In search of lost time by Jo Marchant
Wikipedia: Antikythera mechanism
BBC News: Ancient Moon 'computer' revisited by Jonathan Fildes


c. Chinese General Chow Chu (316 AD) was entombed wearing an aluminum girdle. The western world did not isolate aluminum until 1825. (p. 254)

Sophisticated Metallurgical Skills in Ancients says, The tomb of the Chinese general Chow Chu (A.D. 265-316) presents a mystery. When analyzed by the spectroscope, a metal girdle showed 10 percent copper, 5 percent manganese, and 85 percent aluminum. But according to the history of science aluminum was obtained for the first time by Oersted in 1825 by a chemical method. We are Not the First, by Andrew Tomas, 1971 is cited as the source.


d. Ancient Egyptians and Babylonians of 3,000 years ago knew about the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, which can't be seen without a telescope. Galileo invented the telescope in 1610. (p. 254)

The Naked Eye Planets in the Night Sky confirms that neither Saturn's nor Jupiter's moons can be seen with the naked eye. [This citation was corrected on July 2, 2007. See first comment below. - Jon Maloney]

I found several references to the Dogon people of Mali knowing of the moons of Jupiter, although the allegation is controversial. The Sirius Mystery by Paul Roland says The connection with the Dogon comes about through separate independent studies by various anthropologists who have traced the Dogon line back to these ancient civilisations [Babylon, Sumeria and Egypt]. The Sirius Mystery (at Amazon)


e. An obviously-manufactured iron cube weighing 785 grams, with two convex sides, four perfectly-square sides, and with a precise groove traversing the edges was discovered in 1877 in lower Austria inside a block of coal. In 1885 a smaller, but otherwise identical, cube was discovered in a block of coal in upper Austria. (p. 269)

Strange Relics from the Depths of the Earth by J.R. Jochmans says, In the fall of 1885, at an iron foundry owned by the sons of Herr Isidor Braun located in Schondorf near Bocklabruck, Upper Austria, a workman named Riedl was breaking up a block of Tertiary brown coal that had been mined from the pits at Wolfsegg, near Schwannstadt, and was about to be used to heat the foundry's giant smelters. As the block disintegrated into several pieces, out dropped a strange cube-like object. In 1886, mining engineer Dr. Adolf Gurlt made a report to the Natural History Society at Bonn, Germany and noted that the object, coated with a thin layer of rust, is made of iron, measures 2.64 by 2.64 by 1.85 inches, weighs 1.73 Ibs., and has a specific gravity measurement of 7.75. Four of the iron 'cube's' sides are roughly flat, while the two remaining sides - opposite each other - are convex. A fairly deep groove was incised all the way around the object, about mid-way up its height. Other early studies on the iron artifact were in scientific journals of the day as Nature (London; November 11, 1886, page 36) and L'Astronomie (Paris; 1886, page 463). A plaster cast was also made before the turn of the century -important because the original object subsequently suffered from handling, and from being disfigured by samples having been cut from it by investigators for research. The cast is kept in the Oberosterreichisehes Landesmuseum in Linz, Austria, where the original object was also exhibited from 1950 to 1958. The iron cube is presently in the custody of Herrn O.R. Bernhardt of the Heimathaus Museum in Vocklabruck.

In 1966-67, the iron "cube" was carefully analyzed by experts at the Vienna Naturhistorisehes Museum, using electron-beam microanalysis. They found no traces of nickel, chromium or cobalt in the iron - which means the object was not of meteoric origin. No sulfur was detected either, ruling out the chance of it being a pyrite, a natural mineral that sometimes forms geometric shapes. Because of a low magnesium content, Dr. Kurat of the Museum, and Dr. R. Gill of the Geologisehe Bundesanstalt of Vienna, are of the opinion that the object was made of cast-iron. In 1973, Hubert Mattlianer concluded from yet another detailed investigation that the object had been made from a hand-sculptured lump of wax or clay pressed into a sand base, this forming the mold into which the iron had been poured.

The final conclusion, then, is that the strange object is definitely man-made. What is not explained is what it was doing encased in coal dating to the Tertiary - 60 million years old.



f. In 1921 a human skull was unearthed in a Rhodesian mine 60 feet beneath the surface. The skull has been carbon-14 dated to be 38,000 years old. The skull has two holes consistent with a bullet's entry and exit. An analysis of the holes indicated whatever made them is what killed the man. They could not have been made after death. (p. 271, 415)

Strange Finds says, In 1921 the discovery of a Neanderthal skull in Rhodesia revealed an astonishing mystery. The skull had been pierced by a high velocity projectile, similar to a bullet. Mysterious, because it was disclosed that this injury must have occurred at the moment of death, and not afterwards. It meant that whoever fired the fatal bullet must have fired it many thousands of years ago. In his book Secrets of the Lost Races, author Rene Noorbergen had the following to say: 'A German forensic authority from Berlin has positively stated that the cranial damage to Rhodesian man's skull could not have been caused by anything but a bullet'.

The fact that the skull was found fully 60 feet below the surface of the ground attested to the fact that this was no recent injury, and experts were baffled. Even so certain conclusions seemed obvious: The most apparent of these was that in times considered too remote for intelligent life, this creature had been gunned down by a high velocity weapon. The neat entry point of the wound testified to the great speed of the projectile, which had created a perfectly rounded hole.


Broken Hill Rhodesian Man New insight into an old skull refutes the theory that the item is a Neanderthal skull with a bullet hole.

Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 2, Chapter 18, Ancient Man also refutes the above theory.


g. The powerful, highly-cultured civilization of ancient Egypt has no known foundation. It was already an advanced civilization at our earliest recordings of human history. We trace its history through thirty-one dynasties, from 332 BC back to 3188 BC. There are no records of stories or mythologies prior to 3188 BC. In what is called the first dynasty, under King Menes, Egypt is at its zenith in painting, sculpture, and architecture. From its earliest known existence to 332 BC the civilization was in decline. It's as if the Egyptians inherited a great civilization but could not improve or maintain it. (p. 378)

Egyptian History: Dawn of Egyptian Culture says, Remarkably the structure of the writing system was almost finished in the first dynasty and thus was a product of a development that had been going on for an unknown period of time. Remnants from the earlier stages has not been found and several attempts to derive hieroglyphs from the so called "pot marks" made on ceramic vessels, has not been successful so far. The options are two: writing can in the earliest times have been made on material that has decayed, or the system has been imported from abroad. No traces outside or inside Egypt can confirm any of these suggestions.


h. The skeleton of an ancient bison-like animal called an auroch was discovered in Russia. The auroch has what appears to be a bullet hole in the center of its forehead. The hole is the size of a .44 caliber bullet. (p. 415)

OOPARTS (out of place artifacts) says, An Auroch is an large, extinct "buffalo like" animal. Many skeletons of this extinct type have been found in Europe.

What is remarkable about one in particular in the Moscow Museum of Paleontology is that it has a bullet hole in its skull. The hole is round, without radial cracks that would result from slower projectiles like spears and arrows. The only known projectile that leaves this kind of smooth, round hole without radial cracks is a bullet because of its velocity.

I mention the auroch first because of a possible objection that can be raised. If it is indeed a bullet hole, perhaps the skeleton was shot many, many years after the animals' death. The problem here is that the auroch survived the wound and lived long enough for unmistakable calcification to appear at the site of the injury.



i. In 1938 a German archaeologist named Wilhelm Konig discovered urns used as batteries at the site of ancient Babylonia, near Baghdad, Iraq. In 1946 Willard Gray, a scientist at General Electric, studied Konig's find, replicated it, and had working batteries. (p. 421)

Wikipedia: Baghdad Battery is a good article on the subject.


j. Ancient Indian writings called Agastya Samhita describe how to build a battery, translated as follows, Place a well-cleaned copper plate in an earthenware vessel. Cover it first by copper sulfate and then by moist sawdust. After that, put a mercury-amalgamated zinc sheet on top of the sawdust to avoid polarization. The contact will produce an energy known by the twin name of Mitra-Varuna. Water will be split by this current into Pranavayu and Udanavayu. A chain of one hundred jars is said to give a very effective force. (p. 422)

Ankur Learning Solutions says, An interesting procedure, that gives proof for the usage and preparation of the battery cell is recorded in Agastya Samhita. The following lines from Agastya Samhita illustrate the electrical cell.

“Place copper plates in an earthern pot, cover it with copper sulphate and moistened saw dust. Spread zinc powder and cover it with mercury. Due to the chemical reaction, +ve and –ve electricity is produced. This water is decomposed in to Oxygen and Hydrogen.”



k. Ancient Egyptian pyramids and tombs often have detailed, intricate paintings on the walls far from any available natural light, yet there is no smoke or soot residue that would have been left by torches or lamps. Archaeologists wonder if the Egyptians used electric lights. (p. 220)

Hesire’s Flashlight by Bill McNulty says, Some Egyptologists have theorized that sunlight was bounced off crude mirrors to see while pyramid and tomb chambers were built. These large ancient Egyptian mirrors have never been found. These mythical mirrors supposedly could bounce light into chambers up to 120 metres long as workers moved in and out during construction.

Ancient Egyptian tombs do not have accumulated soot on their ceilings you’d expect if torches or candles were used during construction. Some have suggested oil lamps with a little bit of salt added to the oil kept the lamps from discharging soot. A more likely explanation of how the Ancient Egyptians lighted dark tomb chambers is a light source which has been lost to history.



l. The 3,500 year old Indian book called Sactya Grantham describes how to vaccinate against smallpox. It says, Take on the tip of a knife the contents of the pox inflammation and inject it into the arm of a well man, mixing it with his blood. A fever will follow, but the malady will pass very easily and will create no complications. Thereafter, the second man will forever be rendered invulnerable to the same disease. Edward Jenner is credited with discovering how to vaccinate against smallpox in 1796. There are references to the use of penicillin in ancient Thebes. References have also been found of medical x-rays in China in 206 BC and use of a fluoroscope in India in 500 BC. The Indian physician Jivaka wrote, placed before a patient, it illuminated his body as a lamp illuminates the objects inside a house; it revealed the nature of maladies. These advanced medical practices were old knowledge in ancient times. Rather than being new discoveries then, they appear to be the remnants of much greater medical knowledge that was dying out. (p. 426)

Hindu Wisdom references the same quotation about smallpox vaccinations.

Dead Men's Secrets by Jonathan Gray mentions both the ancient Chinese x-rays and the ancient Indian fluoroscope. Dead Men's Secrets (at Amazon)


m. A tunnel complex was discovered in the Andes in 1965 by an Argentinean archaeologist named Juan Moricz. There are thousands of miles of tunnels at different depths -- 250 feet, 500 feet, and 750 feet. Only a few hundred miles have been cursorily explored. There are countless chambers containing artifacts. One chamber measures 492 x 459 feet and has a large table in the center. The table is surrounded by seven chairs made of an unknown material. Fifty feet from the table is a library of thousands of metal pages, each page standing on a block made of the same material from which the chairs were made. Each page measures about 38 x 19 x 0.24 inches. In a special niche there's a thicker page that appears to be a key of 56 different characters. Only a few random pages were translated and their contents were kept secret. (p. 402-406)

The thousands of miles of artificially-made tunnels and the metal library have never been proven to exist. There are several Internet articles about the tunnels and the library:
The Quest For The Metal Library,
Magyars, Moricz and Mother Language,
Wikipedia: Cueva de los Tayos.




2. The Earth's rotational orientation changed such that hot and cold areas switched positions, and the elevation of areas on the Earth's surface changed.

a. Mammoths and rhinoceroses have been found quick-frozen in northern Siberia, some still in standing positions with tropical plants in their mouths and stomachs. (p. 159, 254) Mammoth remains have been found in the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, Siberia on both sides of the Bering Strait, on the New Siberian Islands, and on Wrangel Island. These areas are only connected by frigid seas. There's no present way mammoths could have moved among these points. (p. 381-382)

Center for Scientific Creation lists details about the frozen mammoth and rhinoceros finds, including a map and photographs.

Frozen mammoth carcasses in Siberia by Michael Oard discusses mammoth finds in detail (from Frozen in Time: The Woolly Mammoth, the Ice Age, and the Bible by Michael Oard, 2004).

Other good information.
OOPARTS (out of place artifacts) The Boneyards: The Beresovka Mammoth Problem...
The extinction of the woolly mammoth: was it a quick freeze? by Michael Oard.
The Antiquity of Man: Tracing Graham Hancock's Shifting Cataclysm by Mikey Brass disputes that mammoths were quick-frozen.


b. Ocean floors are covered with ancient river beds that could not have been created by ocean currents. (p. 254)

Glaciation of North America mentions ancient river beds and forests on ocean floors.

Sweeping the Ocean's Floor also mentions ancient river channels on the floor of the ocean.

Ask A Scientist: Ocean River Beds says that apparent river beds on the ocean floor are not river beds.


c. An ancient Chinese book, The Story of the Ten Stems, tells how the country made a flying leap to the Arctic and remained there for 3,000 years. There was death and destruction and most people died, but 3,000 years later the country made another flying leap to its present location.

I found few references to anything resembling this story. On the page Chapter Eleven: Mythologies of the World I found the following, The Chinese legend of the "Ten Stems," tells us of the earth in this chaotic condition. At the Sixth Stem, Darkness and the Light unite with injurious effects-all things become solid, (frozen) and the Darkness destroys the growth of all things (the beginning of the ice age). At the Seventh Stem, the Darkness nips all things. At the Ninth Stem, the Light begins to nourish all things in the recesses below (the sun reappears).


d. The Greek historian Herodotus (about 450 BC) journeyed to Memphis and Thebes. The Memphis priests told him their records went back 11,000 years. The priests in Thebes told him their records went back 17,000 years. Some of what Herodotus recorded has been dismissed as nonsense, but some of those writings might make sense in light of the HAB theory. If you were near one of the pivot points at the time the Earth capsized, the sun would not rise and set normally. It could rise in the east and set in the north for example. Or it could rise and set in the same direction if the Earth capsized and shifted in certain ways during the capsize. According to Herodotus, the priests in Memphis told him that during their 11,000 year history the sun had set where it had risen twice. (p. 383-384)

The History by Herodotus says, During this time, they said, there were four times when the sun rose out of his wonted place---twice rising where now he sets, and twice setting where now he rises---and, say the priests, nothing became different among the Egyptians, for all these disturbances, neither products of the Earth nor products of the river, nor yet in respect of diseases or death.


e. In Yellowstone National Park mountainsides reveal seventeen layers of vertical trees, with rock between each layer. (p. 160)

The Yellowstone petrified forests by Jonathan Sarfati describes these tree layers.


f. Fossils of sea creatures have been found high in the Rocky Mountains, the Andes, and the Himalayas. (p. 160)

Such fossils are mentioned on these pages:
Famous Fossils from a Mountaintop by Harold G. Coffin,
Seashells on Moutaintops, and
Crinoids on Mount Everest?


g. In 1938 a Chinese archaeologist, Professor Chi Pu Tei made a discovery in the Bayan Kara Ula Mountains of China near the Tibetan border. He discovered a series of artificial tunnels and storerooms. The tunnels are perfectly squared and the walls, ceilings, and floors are highly glazed as if the rock was melted, similar to the effect you would get if you stuck a red-hot nail into a block of wax. He discovered many large chambers, strange implements, and stone disks of uniform size and features. Each disk was 22.7 cm in diameter and 2 cm thick (about 9 inches in diameter and ¾ of an inch thick). Each disk had a circular hole in the center 2 cm across. Each disk had regular indentations all around the edge and a twin groove that spiraled out from the center in an ever-widening circle until it reached the edge. The actual grooves were slightly different from disk to disk. There were 716 disks found and taken to the Peking Academy of Prehistory for study. The disks were found to contain a high cobalt content and a high metallic content. They appeared to be part of a sophisticated electrical system. The grooves were discovered not to be sound recordings but writing so tiny as to be almost microscopic. The disks are 11,500 to 7,500 years old, making them the oldest known writings. Although studied intensely no progress was made on translating the writing until 24 years later in 1962. In 1965 a Russian philologist, Vyacheslav Saizev, published an article in Sputnik magazine about the disks including the translated content from one disk. It told a story of people called the Dropa who landed in spaceships. They cut the tunnels into the mountains, warned the inhabitants of a huge flood coming, and left to go to "the other safe place". A later disk said the Dropa's space ship was severely damaged in the "turning of the earth" and could not be replaced. (p. 397-400)

I was sorry Eckert introduced space aliens in support of the HAB Theory, but I guess he had to since their alleged message offers such strong support -- namely, that in the coming flood there was one other safe place (which would correspond to the second pivot point), the fact that their ship was damaged in the "turning of the earth", and the fact that the most recent stone disk dated 7,500 years old (the time of the last capsize). Of course the whole story about the tunnels, implements, disks, and Dropa is quite controversial. A Google search for -- Dropa stone disks -- yields 139,000 hits. Here are a few pages:
Dropa Stone Discs,
The Strange Stone Discs of Baian-Kara-Ula,
Wikipedia: Dropa.


h. A map in the National Museum of Turkey was drawn by Piri Ibn Haji Memmed (called Piri Re'is), and presented to Sultan Yavuz Selim in 1517. The map shows the southwestern coast of Europe, the western coast of Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, and part of North America, South America, and Antarctica. The map shows South America's inland river systems and other details as far as the eastern slopes of the Andes. Between 1492 and 1498 Columbus only visited the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Haiti. The only other known explorer who visited the Americas prior to the map's being drawn was Amerigo Vespucci who sailed down the Brazilian coast in 1501, however he made no inland explorations. The map shows northern Antarctica without ice, including interior rivers and mountains. According to accepted scientific timetables the Antarctic ice cap is over thirteen million years old, yet the Piri Re'is map shows Antarctica without ice. Another map by the same man, drawn in 1528, shows the north Atlantic. It shows Greenland as two islands with no ice cap. The scientific world did not know that Greenland was two islands until a Frenchman, Dr. Paul-Emile Victor proved it with seismic readings on an expedition in 1947-1949. Accepted scientific timetables show the Greenland ice cap is just as old as the Antarctic ice cap. A Swedish scientist, Dr. Adolf Erik Nordenskjold studied the Piri Re'is maps and discovered that they were not original, but copies of much older maps. Nordenskjold believed they were copies of maps drawn by Ptolemy, and he believed Ptolemy's maps were copies of even older maps. The Piri Re'is map had notes written in the margins. One note said that Antarctica was a very hot place inhabited by large snakes. Other notes say the map was drawn using a map from the period of Alexander the great plus twenty other maps of great antiquity. The evidence suggests that the maps from which the Piri Re'is map was made, were drawn prior to the last capsizing when Antarctica was tropical. Other scientists have studied the map and believe it is based on high-altitude aerial photography from at least 100 miles up. The map matches satellite photographs even to the point of continental distortions around the edges due to the curvature of the Earth. (p. 448-462)

The source of data for the Piri Re'is maps and what the maps show are the subject of much controversy. Here are some articles.
Strange Artifacts: The Piri Reis Map.
Internet Sacred Text Archive: The Piri Re'is Map.
Wikipedia: The Piri Reis Map.
Greenland, a territory apart says, In fact, it is only very recently that the discovery was made that underneath the icecap, Greenland is made up of THREE ISLANDS.


i. In 1949 Dr. Jack Hough accompanied Admiral Byrd on his Antarctic expedition and took core samples from the bed of the Ross Sea. Analysis of the core samples at the Carnegie Institute by W. D. Urry showed that Antarctica's last warm period with flowing rivers was 6,000 years ago, about 1,500 years after the last capsize estimated by the HAB Theory, indicating that it took about 1,500 years for Antarctica's ice cap to form. (p. 457-458)

Fingerprints of the Gods: Exhibit 7 confirms that an Antarctic river flowed into the Ross Sea as recently as 6,000 years ago. Fingerprints of the Gods (at Amazon)

Fingerprints of the Gods: Exhibit 7, The Ross Sea Cores says that Exhibit 7 is inconclsuive.


j. Another Turkish map drawn by Hadji Ahmed in 1559 from different ancient maps, show Alaska and Siberia as being a solid land mass a thousand miles wide. The implication is that the map Ahmed copied had been made prior to the last capsizing of the Earth. (p. 461)

Ancient Maps More Accurate Than Ours by JC Ryan says, The Hadji Ahmed map of 1559 shows Antarctica and the Pacific coast of the United States of America with extreme accuracy. It also depicts the land bridge that once existed between Siberia and Alaska.


k. In 1968 scientists at the Alert weather station on Ellesmere Island, Canada, 475 miles from the North Pole, discovered a huge magnetic object seismologically measured to be 65 miles long and 64 miles thick whose nearest edge is 15 miles deep. (p. 428)

Destiny Matrix says, In his book Atlantis Rising (Dell, 1976), renowned paranormal and UFO researcher Brad Steiger mentioned a 1965 paper presented by Canadian geophysicist John M. DeLaurier of the Dominion of Canada Observatory. According to this scientist, there was something strange going on beneath the ground at Ellesmere Island, a barren location mostly covered by glacial icecap and roamed by herds of caribou and musk oxen. Professor DeLaurier's paper discussed the existence of a structure so vast that it defied imagination—a quasi-cylindrical loaf of an object measuring 65 miles long by 65 miles thick at a staggering depth of 80 miles. The huge structure had been detected by seismic equipment located at Alert, one of the U.S.-Canadian Distant Early Warning (DEW) stations in the Arctic wilderness. Studies showed that the object, which straddled the earth's mantle and crust, was the source of some sort of disturbance—similar to the situation encountered at Lake Vostok 30-odd years later—affecting the magnetic field at the Alert facility and inducing a strong flow of electricity.




3. Man has existed for millions of years (many times longer than accepted timetables estimate), Man existed in places and times heretofore unknown, and Man has existed in previously-unknown forms.

a. Footprints imprinted in 15-million-year-old sandstone were found in Nevada. The shoe imprint is so detailed that the stitching threads around the sole are visible. (p. 254)

Nevada Shoe Print? analyzes the print and says the fossil's identification as a shoe print is inconclusive.


b. In 1833 soldiers in California discovered the skeleton of a twelve-foot tall human. The skull contained double rows of both upper and lower teeth. (p. 254)

Giant Human Remains - From records and sources all over the world says, In 1833,soldiers digging a pit for a powder magazine at Lompock Rancho, California, hacked their way through a layer of cemented gravel and came up with the skeleton of a giant man about twelve feet tall. The skeleton was surrounded by carved shells, huge stone axes, and blocks of porphyry covered with unintelligible symbols. The giant was also noteworthy in still another respect. He had a double row of teeth, both upper and lower. When the natives began to attach some religious significance to the find, authorities ordered the skeleton and all the artifacts secretly reburied and, of course, lost to the scientific study they deserved. (This site lists dozens of discoveries of giants.)


c. Several giant human footprints were discovered in granite near Brayton, in Bledsoe County Tennessee. The granite is hundreds of millions of years old. One footprint's bare heel is 13 inches wide. (p. 270)

OOPARTS (out of place artifacts) says, Near Braytown, on the headwaters of the Tennessee river, were found some remarkable footprints impressed in what is now solid rock. The tracks included those of a human heel ball thirteen inches wide! The marks clearly showed that the fellow whose stride in that distant day turned to stone had six toes on each foot. Stranger than Science, by Frank Edwards.


d. In 1952 an ancient amphitheater containing many anachronistic sculptures was discovered in Peru by Dr. Daniel Ruzo. There were sculptures of camels, lions, elephants and other animals never known to have lived in South America. There were also finely carved heads of Semites, Caucasians, and Negroes, all of whom arrived in South America less than 500 years ago. One sculpture is of an amphicelydia, a prehistoric ancestor of the turtle, which has been extinct for over 180 million years. There is also a horse, although horses became extinct in South America over 9,000 years ago, and were reintroduced in the 1500s. (p. 270)

This claim appears to be true but exaggerated. The stone images are so worn that the images must be interpreted. The desription of a documetary video called The Mysterious Stone Monuments of Markawasi Peru says, High atop a remote plateau in Central Peru, hundreds of illusive shapes can be seen in the living rock. Are they merely natural erosion, or were they carved, as some think, by the hand of man?


e. Luther Cressman of the University of Oregon discovered Lamos Cave in Nevada, which contained 200 pairs of neatly-stacked woven sandals dated to be from 7,030 BC by carbon-14 dating. (p. 413)

Some facts in this item seem to be wrong, but the main facts are correct -- that Cressman discovered many pairs of sandals that were about 9,000 years old. The site Pre-Indian Caucasoids in America by Colin, Son of Þeedrich says, The Fork Rock Cave in Oregon has been in the middle of ongoing new discoveries. The cave itself is small -- only thirty-five feet wide and sixty-five feet long. It was here in 1938 that about seventy pairs of sandals made of sagebrush were discovered by Luther S. Cressman. Radio-carbon dating technology dated the sandals at nine thousand years old (fortunately, the sandals were preserved until radio-carbon dating was invented).


f. In the 1920s vases were found near Pisco, Peru that were painted with five-toed llamas, yet modern-day llamas have only two toes. (p. 413)

Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology by George M. Eberhart states, Pottery fragments showing animals that look like llamas with five toes were discovered in the 1920s in the pre-Incan Paracas culture area near Pisco, lea Department, Peru, by Julio C. Tello.

Are the Ica Stones Fake? Skeptics Under Fire by Dr. Dennis Swift says, On two separate occasions, engraved stones were excavated from Pre-Hispanic Indian tombs dating from 400 B.C. to 700 A.D. The engraved stones were embedded in the side of the mortuary chamber of the tombs and next to mummies. Alejandro Pezzia Asserto was an archaeologist from the National Archaeology Department of Peru. In 1968, Alejandro Pezzia Asserto published his work with drawings and descriptions of the stones with a five-toed llama that was supposed to be extinct for over forty million years.


g. The scientific community (geologists, anthropologists, archaeologists) agree that Man did not live more than 1.7 million years ago. In 1924 the Doheny Scientific Expedition discovered an ancient painting in Arizona, depicting a Tyrannosaurus rex attacking a human being. (p. 429)

Walking Amidst the Dinosaurs by Bert Thompson and Dr. Brad Harrub says, In the late 1800s, Samuel Hubbard, honorary curator of archaeology at the Oakland, California, Museum of Natural History, was excavating ancient Indian dwellings in the Hava Supai Canyon in Arizona. On the walls of the canyon where the Indians’ ancestors once lived, Dr. Hubbard found elegant drawings of an elephant, an ibex, a dinosaur, and other animals. He stated concerning the dinosaur drawing: “Taken all in all, the proportions are good.” He further suggested that the huge reptile is “depicted in the attitude in which man would be most likely to see it—reared on its hind legs, balancing with the long tail, either feeding or in fighting position, possibly defending itself against a party of men” (as quoted in Verrill, 1954, pp. 155ff.).

The same article says, An article in the January 1993 National Geographic boldly proclaimed: “No human being has ever seen a live dinosaur” (“Age of the Dinosaurs,” 1993, 183[1]:142).


h. An ancient rock carving on a cliff overlooking the Big Sandy River in Oregon depicts a stegosaurus. (p. 429)

The Doheny Scientific Expedition to the Hava Supai Canyon, Northern Arizona has a supplement that contains an illustrated discussion of the carving.


i. A painting on ancient ceramic pottery discovered in Panama depicts flying pterodactyls. (p. 429)

Ancient Pterosaur Depictions says, The native American Coclé culture of Panama was discovered by A. Hyatt Verrill. He noticed the oddly pterosaur-like representations on Coclé pottery and suggested it was so realistic that these native Americans must have been influenced by fossil discoveries. He describes the depiction (see right) as having “beak-like jaws armed with sharp teeth, wings with two curved claws, short, pointed tail, reptilian head crest or appendages, and strong hind feet with five-clawed toes on each.” The Coclé civilization dates from AD 1330-1520. But Verrill theorizes that this artwork was based on “accurate descriptions, or even drawings or carvings, of fossilized pterodactyls.” (Verrill, A. Hyatt, Strange Prehistoric Animals and their Stories, 1948, pp. 132-133.)


j. A stone calendar from Peru has the sculptured heads of toxidons, mammals that have been extinct for over 13 million years. (p. 429)

This item must be referring to the Gateway of the Sun in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia. The Crystalinks page Tiahuanaco, Bolivia says, The 10 ton Gateway of the Sun is monolithic, carved from a single block of Andesite granite, and is broken right down the center. Its upper portion is deeply carved with beautiful and intricate designs, including a human figure, condors, toxodons, elephants and some symbols.... This huge monument is hewn from a single block of stone, and some believe that the strange symbols might represent a calendar, the oldest in the world.

50 Comments:

Anonymous Martin J Powell said...

Jon,

I see that you have cited my article 'The Naked Eye Planets in the Night Sky' and you say that it mentions that Titan can be seen with the naked eye. However, as you have pointed out in your previous post, this is not the case. Reading through my article again, I can see that it was worded in such a way that it could have been interpretated in this way.

I've now amended the text to clarify the situation - namely, that Titan can only be seen with telescopes and binoculars.

June 26, 2007 at 4:08 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Thanks for the correction, Martin! I have updated the post accordingly.

July 2, 2007 at 8:18 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I appreciate that the last comment on this subject was over a year ago. This book has never left my mind since I read it in 1999 or therabouts. I have since been researching the subject based on the Global Warming theories. Thank you for your blog...I appreciate the links and have "clicked on" more than a few. Also...our family posts to a blog on your site...rexandmary.blogspot.com

We are Uncle Hans and Wendy

Love your site!!

Wendy

July 9, 2008 at 12:47 AM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Thanks for your comment, Wendy. I put a lot of thought, time, and effort into this blog entry. I'm glad at least one person has read and appreciated it!

July 9, 2008 at 3:39 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

This comment was emailed to me by Gershom Gale, posted here with his permission. - jm

On discussing the HAB hypothesis with a very well-qualified physicist here in Jerusalem, I became convinced that the theory as stated is plainly untenable; the mass of the entire planet is simply too great for any conceivable amount of off-center ice to cause a capsizing.

If, however, one stipulates that instead of the entire globe tipping, what happens is a periodic, radical slipping of the crust over the mantle caused by the uneven ice buildup, the entire thing becomes, in his words, "quite plausible."

Continent-wide forest fires, massive earthquakes and hills that rose and fell like waves of water would all be experienced with such a slippage.

This would also offer a simple explanation for a geological mystery that came to light only after Brown's death -- the discovery of rock samples with dramatically altered magnetic alignments.

And finally, another tidbit of which Brown was almost certainly unaware. In the Talmud one finds a description of the day of the Flood that should pique the interest of all HAB devotees. It is written there that on the day of the Flood, the sun rose and set in the same place and that, after evening had fallen, a scalding-hot tidal wave struck which was so enormous that the sun could be seen shining through its crest.

Gershom Gale

July 23, 2008 at 2:15 AM  
Blogger Steve said...

Jon,

Excellent blog. I read the book when it came out and I was 19 years old. The basic premise of the story has never left me and I often re-visit it or raise it as a discussion point with friends. I for one believe the possibility that this could happen and find it a more plausible way to explain some of histories more interesting mysteries.

August 28, 2008 at 8:51 AM  
Blogger Brian King said...

Jon, well done! I prepared the original chronological list from Eckert book nearly 10 years ago, posted it to the site and it's still there. You have dramatically improved on it with your research, for which I thank you; it has, in some respects, duplicated my own.
Like many, I have read and reread this book, probably 20+ times, since it was originally published in the 1970s. It never leaves me for very long.
I now have something more to add: Since posting that list in 1998, I have had occasional to fly over the continent of Australia nearly 100 times on business flights from Sydney to London, some of which occurred during daylight hours. Looking at the barren wasteland that makes up most of this continent from 35,000 feet through to eyes of a HAB Theory devotee, one can see the evidence of Australia having been a former pole: the continent is virtually completely flattened, save for the Great Dividing Range in the virtual eastern edge. This is consistent with the bowl that formed by the weight of ice at the poles. Additionally, there are evident ancient riverbeds which would far predate our current era and, perhaps most importantly, there are thousands of miles of small ridges which could well have been formed by a sloshing ocean. It is to, put it mildly, both uncanny and unnerving and leaves me with the feeling that H.A.B. MUST have been correct with his hypothesis. The only question which remains is: When?

September 4, 2008 at 5:36 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Hi Brian,

I'm glad you enjoyed my post. Thanks for your praise.

I like your observations regarding Australia and riverbeds. Like you, I think the HAB theory is likely to be true, even if the capsizing is only of the Earth's crust rather than of the entire planet. I know those possibilities are very different scientifically, but since we live on the crust both scenarios are the same to us.

As for when the next shift might occur, since the ice caps are rapidly decreasing in size and weight, I think the odds are that Earth will experience other life-threatening catastrophes before the next capsize occurs.

Thanks for commenting.

Jon

September 10, 2008 at 12:44 PM  
Anonymous Brian David said...

While the HAB theory not only seems plausible, it appears to be likely. However, no mechanical cause is addressed to create the event. This can be corrected by reading Arthur Ryan's book: "Are We Worth Our Salt?". It can be found with a google books search. It tells us that global warming is actually a process step that will culminate in a polar shift.

November 1, 2008 at 11:19 AM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Thanks for commenting, Brian. In the HAB theory the cause of the shift is the weight of the polar ice that's not equally balanced around each pole. Centrifugal force causes the off-center weight to shift to the equator.

What mechanism causes the polar shift according to Are We Worth Our Salt?

November 1, 2008 at 12:01 PM  
Anonymous brian david said...

According to Arthur Ryan, the build up of ice actually results from rise in global temps that contribute to the desalination of the oceans. The mechanics are described in a manner that is easy to read. Remember that if the physics of a theory don't work the idea probably isn't sound. This book makes the HAB theory probable from the point of view of a process.

November 3, 2008 at 7:40 AM  
Blogger fred said...

I read "The HAB Theory" many years ago and at least twice....
With regard to giants...the Buddhist scriptures refer to the waxing and waning of human life-span, being from as little as ten years to as long as 100,000 years, and in periods when life-span is short we are physically small but when life-span is long we are very tall. Records are kept about the next future Buddha, since this aeon has five buddhas and the present one is the fourth. His name and that of his city and parents etc. are recorded...which will be a long time in the future. The Thais have a measurement called a 'curb' which is equal to an arms length, and the next Buddha will be 85 curb in height, whilst the average size of men will be about 65 curb at that time. Life-span will be 60,000 years and a girl will need to be 5,000 years old before considered an adult and able to marry.
When the present Buddha died the average life-span was 100 years and it diminishes by one year each 100 years that pass since the Buddha died....now being 2,500 years ago the life-span now is 75 years.
When the life-span reaches 10 years then humans will be able to give birth at five years of age. Morals will have been completely lost and killing another will have no more consequence than the killing of an animal. Seven days of madness will occur when there is a killing spree, and those who hid themselves away will come out of hiding afterwards to search for many days before encountering another human.
Morals will be restored and the projeny of these survivors will have a life-span of 20 years, and their progeny 30 years....etc, gradually rising to the 60,000 years in the next Buddha's time.

January 1, 2009 at 5:49 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Those are interesting beliefs, Fred. They are all new to me. I can't help but wonder if humanity will survive the next couple of decades. Some people believe the planetary alignment and end of the Maya long-count calendar indicate the end of the Earth in 2012. If we survive that period, technological progress will enable individuals vast destructive power using genetically-engineered diseases and nanobots. The near future will be interesting.

Thanks for posting.

January 1, 2009 at 7:11 PM  
Blogger fred said...

I don't believe the Earth will end anytime soon.... maybe just our civilisation....but it's happened so many times before...it is inevitable...

January 2, 2009 at 4:59 AM  
Blogger fred said...

Sorry...in my above post i got the measurement 'curb' wrong... it is between the outstretched thumb and finger tips...not arms length.

February 25, 2010 at 6:02 PM  
Anonymous Anstey said...

I read the HAB theory in 1972 or so. Its basic postulate is that the earth has experienced numerous massive catastrophes caused by a shift in its axis. In that sense it is the opposite of Darwin's theory, that assumes "non-catastrophism" and resulted in the extreme timelines used for carbon dating.
Other authors relate equally anachranostic events, such as a gold model airplane found in coal in England, or the line drawings on a plateau in Peru that can only be seen properly from a few hundred feet in the air.
But Global warming is far from good. At some point, when the glacier melt sufficiently, the fresh water will cause the gulf stream to stop. When that happens, another ice age will ensue. Not everyone agrees. Some think atmospheric temperature more critical. But no one is sure.

March 21, 2010 at 5:07 PM  
Blogger Dave said...

I read The Hab Theory and Velikosky's works long ago (along with much related material). The killer argument against Velikosky was expressed by preacher of orthodoxy, Carl Sagan, in Cosmos, when he pointed out that Velikosky didn't explain a mechanism by which Venus could have been ejected from Jupiter. He (along with the vast majority of the scientific community) was smugly dismissive of the whole notion - while conveniently ignoring the fact that Velikosky's theory had predictive value borne out by later observation, whereas the orthodoxy (which predicted a basically tropical climate for Venus) had failed miserably.

Shoemaker-Levy comet, IMHO, demonstrated just such a mechanism. A cometary body which made a close pass could well have appeared to actually be ejected from the surface of Jupiter. I doubt that I am the first to propose this as V still has many ardent followers, but I haven't read it elsewhere.

I believe (based on plenty of evidence and Occam's razor) that Egypt was founded by survivors of Atlantis, which did not sink, but was inundated when the North American icecap was vaporized by a couple of "flaming swords" (a comet or large meteor split in two). It may well have rained for forty days and nights - or much longer. Ocean levels rose suddenly and dramatically, by about 300 meters. Evidence of Atlantis will be discovered along the mid-Atlantic ridge, but orthodox science (which has tried to put it anywhere but in the Atlantic) will probably call it "Fred" or something - anything but Atlantis. Imagine what a 300 meter rise in sea level would do to our major population centers today, most of which are along the coasts.

Ice cores from Greenland have demonstrated that the rise in ocean levels ten to twelve thousand years ago was precipitous - accomplished in ten years or less.

I came here because I just watched the movie "2012", which rips off "The Hab Theory" for a basic plot, but with a different cause for the slippage. I found the movie very exciting, but I really had to suspend disbelief a lot, and the end is impossible, but I recommend it anyway.

January 29, 2011 at 3:07 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Hi Dave,

I am not familiar with Velikosky's theories. Reading "The HAB Theory" was my first encounter with a polar-shift theory. I had read with interest about many of the evidential anomalies discussed in "The HAB Theory", but I had never read what I thought was a plausible explanation for them. That's why I got so excited about "The HAB Theory". The theory seems believable to me and explains dozens of previously unexplained phenomena.

Now I feel like the Earth is precariously balanced between the threats of getting too warm and getting too cool. If global warming continues its effects will be devastating, although not nearly as devastating as the Earth flipping over on its axis would be.

Thanks for your comments. No one has commented on this post in a long time.

Jon

January 29, 2011 at 3:51 PM  
Blogger Dave said...

I'm sorry, most of my post - except for the last paragraph - must have seemed completely off-topic. I'll try to clear it up.

First, Mr Eckert used much of the same evidence that Immanuel Velikosky used in his two books, Earth in Upheaval, and Worlds in Collision. That made the connection in MY mind, and I erroneously thought Mr Velikosky had been mentioned in your post - which was excellent, I might add. So I assumed a familiarity on your part.

Second, The Hab Theory made quite an impression on me when I read it in the 70s also, so when I saw a very similar scenario in the very popular movie "2012", and googled, I came up with your post. I tried to talk to some people after I read Hab in the 70s, but, pre-internet, nobody I talked to took it seriously.

The wobble of the poles has been gradually increasing, I understand, but I have no clue about any corresponding wobble of the Earth itself. Like yourself, it has occurred to me that some melting of the ice caps might not be a bad thing, and for the same reasons. On the other hand, there is evidence that two of the biggest extinction events occurred when the ocean temperature rose just a few degrees, which enabled microorganisms which excrete poisonous gas to proliferate. The oceans belched it up, and almost everything died. So be careful what you wish for.

When V wrote his books (around 1950) the universe was believed to be "steady state" and evolution an extremely gradual process, so anything smacking of catastrophe was complete heresy. A noted astronomer even managed to get Vs books banned among scientific publishers. The ice was just beginning to crack there when Mr Eckert wrote Hab but he had to put it in a novel to get any attention at all.

Since you are already interested in the subject, I highly recommend Vs books also. You should be able to pick them up in paperback for just about the cost of shipping.

I hope I have clarified my earlier comment a bit, and I appreciate you getting back to me so quickly.

January 29, 2011 at 11:04 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Thanks for the clarifications. I read the Wikipedia article on Immanuel Velikovsky (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Velikovsky). He and Allan W. Eckert are both catastrophists (as opposed to gradualists). Eckert's HAB Theory was that periodically the Earth's ice caps become too heavy and unbalanced, which causes the Earth to abruptly topple over in its orbit so that the heavy ice caps are at the equator instead of at the top and bottom. Velikovsky's catastrophes seem to occur due to close encounters between Earth and other planetary objects. I can see how either theory could account for many of the archaeological and geological anomalies enumerated in The HAB Theory.

I thought the script and acting in "2012" were pretty bad, but I enjoyed the subject matter and the special effects. I remember wishing they had shifted some of the budget from special effects to script-writing. A January 3, 2011 IMDB Pro page in Google's cache (http://goo.gl/JGf0T) shows "The HAB Theory" movie as in production. I look forward to seeing it when it comes out.

Jon

January 30, 2011 at 2:21 PM  
Blogger Dave said...

I like Cusack and come from an era when 99% of SF movies were soooo unbelievably bad that I tend to grade on a curve, so I liked "2012" quite a bit.

SPOILER ALERT! Unless something really grates on me, I try to suspend disbelief and just go with it. But the end of the movie, when the air had cleared after only 30 days or so, damn near ruined the whole thing for me. They got points for knowing that Yellowstone was a supervolcano, but lost them for that. Especially since all the other volcanos and supervolcanos would probably go off at the same time with that kind of scenario. It would take decades - if not centuries - for the air to clear.

Thanks for the heads up about the upcoming (we hope) movie. Let me know if you decide to read Vs books; I'd be interested in your thoughts.

One is composed primarily of an analysis of folklore about various catastrophes and exposition of his theory. He was criticized for just stringing together a bunch of primitive myths, so the second book was an exhaustive detailing of physical evidence (of giant tidal waves and other corroborative facts.)

I'm not sure I buy either Eckert or V's theories, but I am sure that scientific orthodoxy misses a lot, largely because entire areas are off-limits for "serious" investigation. This could eventually mean the end of our species. In the case of The Hab Theory however, there doesn't seem to be a lot we can do to either prevent or survive it.

January 30, 2011 at 5:18 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Dave,

I encountered a pretty neat coincidence last night. For the last few days I've been reading the 1980 science fiction "Shiva Descending" by Gregory Benford & William Rotsler. It's about an iron asteroid about two kilometers across that's on a collision course with Earth. During a press conference an astronaut tells reporters about frozen mammoths found in Alaska and Siberia that had undigested plants from much closer to the equator in their stomachs and who could not have lived in a northern tundra climate. She mentions the possibility of a meteor strike accounting for the change in the Earth's orientation. She says, "It is possible that the Earth was struck so hard that it rolled on its axis and assumed its present-day configuration." (page 71 of the 1985 Tor printing).

It seemed amazing to encounter that idea in my current book at the same time we were discussing the idea on this blog. It's not as if this is a common topic. The last comment on this blog had been in March 2010.

Jon

January 31, 2011 at 11:02 AM  
Blogger Dave said...

Not so surprising as you might think, Jon.

It is a neat coincidence, but Benford is a well-established SF writer. SF readers and writers (freaks like you and me, lol) are just the people that are most familiar with these anomalies and the various explanations for them, plausible or not. "Thinking outside the box" is in the job description for a SF writer - a good one, at least.

When I was growing up (born in '49), scientific orthodoxy considered anything smacking of catastrophism as heretical as the church once considered Galileo's assertion of a solar-centric (rather than geocentric) solar system.

Geologic and evolutionary processes - the pseudo-scientific religious belief maintained - were entirely gradual and only took place over millenia.

Plate tectonics, and the undeniable evidence that dinosaurs were wiped out in a catastrophe, pretty much shattered any legitimacy of that dogma, but it is still the orthodoxy, as demonstrated by the term "punctuated equilibrium" that evolutionary science came up with to account for gaps in the record and sudden evolutionary leaps after gigantic planetary catastrophes.

Notice "equilibrium" (the substitute for "steady state") and that it is only "punctuated" by planetwide catastrophe. Had Darwin been in possession of the information we possess, I have no doubt he would have included and accounted for it in his theory. Similarly, the "Steady state" universe and even our solar system
has been shown by astronomers and astrophysicists to be an incredibly violent place.

But there are still loads of inconvenient facts that current theories fail to account for, violating one of the basic principles of science, Occam's razor. (The simplest explanation that fits ALL of the available facts is probably true.)

The Hab Theory certainly accounts for a lot of them. Anomalies really bother people like me, you, Eckert, Velikovski - and SF writers. So not that much of a coincidence, I'm thinking.

January 31, 2011 at 2:59 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

The idea wasn't the coincidence. The timing of the idea was the coincidence -- that I would happen upon the idea in my current book within 24 hours of your mentioning the idea that Earth impacts caused the archaeological anomalies in the HAB Theory.

We're five years apart. I was born in 1954. I minored in Philosophy in college and have long tried to follow Occam's Razor -- the simplest solution is usually the best, or don't multiply theoretical entities beyond necessity, to put it a different way.

I vaguely remembered having read that Albert Einstein was a catastrophist. I performed a search and found this quotation from Einstein, "In a polar region there is a continual disposition of ice, which is not symmetrically distributed about the pole. The earth's rotation acts on these unsymetrically deposited masses, and produces centrifugal momentum that is transmitted to the rigid crust of the earth. The constantly increasing centrifugal momentum produced this way will, when it reaches a certain point, produce a movement of the earth's crust over the rest of the earth's body, and this will displace the polar regions toward the equator." (from the Foreword to Earth's Shifting Crust by Charles H. Hapgood, 1958, from this site http://www.reocities.com/Athens/Troy/6396/lightfall034.htm).

Jon

January 31, 2011 at 3:48 PM  
Blogger fred said...

As a Buddhist, the eventual destruction of the Earth is inevitable, but that does not mean the end. The basic time-scale is called the aeon. Buddha knew about galaxys...('cartwheels in the sky'...'ten-thousand fold world systems') and it seems to me an aeon is equivalent to the life and death of a galaxy. When asked how long is an aeon he said (with a simile), suppose there is a mountain ten miles high, ten miles wide, ten miles long, and every one hundred years a bird lands on it and wipes its beak before flying away. Then the mountain would sooner be worn away completely level with the ground before an aeon is complete. Since Buddhism see the past and future as infinite, no starting point being evident, all beings have existed since beginningless time and therefore we have all been through countless aeons. Everything in nature is cyclic, and an aeon is just another natural cycle.....birth (forming of planets), cooling and preparing to be able to receive life, life coming in many forms, then destruction. All beings exist in different realms (hell realms, heaven realms, human realm, animal realms, etc.) according to their karma, but the highest realms are without form and just pure mind and all beings take rebirth in these realms during the periods of an aeon when the other realms are not existing. We are all beings, all the same, just that we take on the form and attributes of whichever realm we are reborn into. So I am human in this existence and have human form, but if my karma caused me to take rebirth in the animal realm then I would be in the form of an animal....or hell being...or heavenly being...etc.

January 31, 2011 at 4:06 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Welcome back, Fred. In January 2009 you posted here about Buddhism, life spans, giants, and more. The beliefs you stated then were new to me, as are some that you posted today.

Many people believe they are more than their physical bodies and that their essence will survive bodily death. Yet we're physical beings and therefore interested in threats to our physical existence, such as the possible end of civilization due to the Earth flipping on its axis as described by the HAB theory. I doubt if many people care whether or not the Earth survives after humans are gone. :-)

The Buddhist beliefs you stated about the vastness of time, the cyclic nature of the planets, and the cyclic nature of our existence are similar to my own. It's interesting how similar those beliefs are to beliefs I've encountered in Robert Monroe's books on out-of-body experiences and in "The Agashan Discourses" by William Eisen.

I'm curious about something, Fred. I assume you saw Dave's and my new comments on this blog, and decided to join in. I looked at your Blogger profile and saw that this Orts blog is not listed as one of the blogs you follow. Did you know we were posting here, and if so, how? I'm just curious.

Thanks for posting. I enjoy exposure to unfamiliar beliefs and different cosmologies.

Jon

January 31, 2011 at 5:20 PM  
Blogger Dave said...

Hi Jon,

Sorry it took a while to get back to you. I have a 14 month old son running me ragged (also a 35 year old) and sometimes I barely have time to breathe, as my wife works full time and I am "Mr. Mom" in the daytime.

I'm not sure Einstein would have considered himself a catastrophist, but he was very interested in V's theory and corresponded with him about it. Sorry, but I'm not really sure where I read that; either in the forward of one of V's books or in the book I read much later, "Velikovski reconsidered".

I also don't remember if this was mentioned in "The Hab Theory" but Velikovski also - and this may interest you - took the passage in the Bible about the sun pausing in the sky and reasoned that if there was a long day on one side of the planet, there would have been a very long night on the other. So he researched myths and legends from South America in the relevant period and came up with a lot of material indicating that that had happened. From the descriptions, it was pretty scary.

February 7, 2011 at 1:43 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

I don't specifically remember Eckert discussing a long day or long night in The HAB Theory (which could just mean I've forgotten), but I do remember him discussing accounts of a day when the sun rose and set in the same direction, indicating a major shift in the Earth's orientation that day. It seems like one such account was from Herodotus. It has been three years since I read The HAB Theory though, so I've lost many of the details.

Jon

February 7, 2011 at 1:56 PM  
Blogger Greg said...

The OTHER scenario with identical results is a massive solar max, which is happening over the next year. The theory is that x-rays and other emissions from the sun during this time will cause the neutrinos to dance inside in the earth's molten core causing it to heat up excessively. Result, crust shift.

February 22, 2011 at 11:14 AM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Hi Greg. That's interesting. I've read that the sun is entering a more active period now, but I had not heard about the scenario you described. Just yesterday I read this article about the effects of solar storms in the UK Mail Online: http://goo.gl/xyOp8

Thanks for posting.

Jon

February 22, 2011 at 11:33 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Jon:
I recently picked up a copy of The Hab Theory at a yard sale and decided to reread it for the first time since 1976 when it first came out.

I should point out, I also am a 49er and have been reading sci fi since I was 10 or 12(my first book was I robot) I love the hard science fiction, facts and figures please, not the new "cyber" scifi that is all the rage.

I love the old school writers like Asimov, Heinline, Clark etc. and some of the newer writers like Niven, Binford and even David Webers Safehold series.

I also have been reading fringe science books for as long as I can rember, Frank Edwards, Berlitz, Von Daneken,Velikovski, Edger Casey and so on. I wont say I believe everything I read, especially when the writer tells you the same thing in 10 different ways as if that lend legitamacy to his findings.

I love stories, books & film, that deal with world catastrophe weather real or fictonal. I was blown away when I first read The Hab Theory in 76, so much so that I spent a great deal of time researching a lot of the info that Eckert used in the book and even managed to get a hold of a copy H.A.B COE, boy was that a hard read. Please remeber this was pre internet days plus I was living in Australia then, which was lucky in some ways, since the Sydney and Melbourne libraries had rooms of old books that nobody ever read, mostly off the wall stuff.

All this leads up to my rereading the book which led me to this blog. I have to say that while the basic story is good Eckert developed some of the worst charcters of any book I've ever read, the protaganist, John Grant and the two women, Ann & Marie read worse then a bad romance novel. Wich is a shame since it makes it hard for a first time reader to get to thereal meat of the book, unless of course the reader is a 12 year old girl.

I'm not sureif this is stuff you want to hear, but while rereading the book I decided to Google The Hab Theory and one thing led to another and I ended up finding you and was facinated by all the post and what others have thought of the book.

Like I said earlier I have always been interested in world catastrophe stories and I find it intriguing that so many films of that genre have come out in the past few years. I'm sure a lot of it has to do with 2012 and the Mayan calendar, a bit of Y2K syndrome. I'm sure you have noticed all the shows on the History and Dicovery channels too, even Natgeo has gotten in on the act.

In the long run there are two things I know, one: there is a lot we don't know or understand even though science doesn't like to admit that.
Two: this planet is going through some serious changes and I hope I live long enough to see where it ends up.

Hope I didn't step on too many toes or bore anyone to tears. I'll be curious to see if anyone will respond to my rambling.
Foster

November 1, 2011 at 1:39 AM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Hi Foster,

What's a COE?

I didn't like the human story part of The HAB Theory. Reading about the characters and their interactions was a real chore for me. I would have much preferred the book as a nonfiction that simply presented the theory and the body of evidence supporting it, with references.

Intuitively I feel like Mankind is on the brink of huge changes, and I admit the changes seem more likely to be negative than positive. Man has been fortunate to have a relatively stable climate, large areas of the planet whose temperature ranges are acceptable to human life, and plentiful natural resources. As we overpopulate the planet, pollute, destroy the atmosphere's ozone protection, and use up natural resources our future looks bleaker. As technology advances we also face greater threats from genetically engineered plagues, self-replicating nanobots, and even the possibility of sentient machines. Nuclear war is an ever-present danger too. Then there are the many threats that are not man-made -- polar shift, unstable weather, magnetic reorientation, plagues, asteroids, solar storms, etc. Right now the biggest threat appears to be a global economic collapse that could end civilization as we know it. My hope is that mankind survives long enough to reach the Singularity when Man transcends biology. Check out the book The Singularity is Near by Ray Kurweil. I'm also waiting for Homo Evolutis.

Thanks for posting.

Jon

November 1, 2011 at 10:18 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Jon:
Sorry, COE, Cataclysms of Earth, Hugh A. Browns original book that The Hab Theory was based on.

We (mankind) probably have a lot to answer for if the buddhist are right and we go on to another plane of life.

Personaly I don't any of us are going to live long enough to see the singularity or the next step of man in evolution, unless we engineer it ourselves.

Ran across a book at our local library taht I thought I'de read. it is called Apocolypse 2012 by Lawrence E. Joseph. I'm curios to see if he has anything new to add or if it's going to be a rehash of the usual crap.

I tend to be an opened mind skeptic, so many people have jumped on the catastophe bandwagon in the last 20 years that i9t is hard to seperate the good from the bad.

I see the real danger from two sources, that is if we don't go into economical meltdown and do it to ourselves.
One: the solar max could send us back to to the late 18th century technology wise, if it is as bad as some experts (NASA) are predicting. (Thats why I've lived in a solar powered home for the last 30 years)
Two: A natural catastrophe right here on earth that you don't hear much about. There is an island in the Canary chain (sorry can't remember the just name now) Half the mountain on the island has slipped quite a bit, if an earth quake or volcano should jolt enough so that it slips completely into the sea it will create a tidal wave that will make the one that hit japan look like ripples in a puddle. Almost all major coastline will be affected.


Anyway that's my take on things
Keep up the good work.
Foster

November 2, 2011 at 4:44 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Foster,

I should have recognized your use of COE. Cataclysms of the Earth has been on my wishlist ever since I read The HAB Theory.

I think the Canary Island that some people think poses a near-future danger is La Palma. Here's the "Tsunami scenarios" section of Wikipedia's La Palma article.

Good for you for living in a solar-powered home. That's great. I would love to have a self-sufficient home in the country -- solar power, well, garden, chickens. My only excuses are lack of vision and lack of funds. :-)

Jon

November 3, 2011 at 9:23 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Jon:
It is easy to get off the grid, all you have to be is young and dumb, like I was 30 years ago, and not appreciate just exactly what you getting into. After that "like Topsy it just growed"

Actually what pushed me over the edge was when we were living in Nth Queensland Australia (back in the 70's) and ten guy at the power station went on strike for new uniforms and blacked out an area larger then Texas. I decided then I would never be held hostage for my basic needs again.

Thanks for reminding me the island in question is called LaPalma. Talk about coinsedences (sp?) Right after I read your reply, I happened to turn on the TV and while surfing around ran across the NatGeo channel and they were doing a whole hour on Lapalma and the danger it was.

I just finished that book "Apocolypse 2012" by Lawrence E. Joseph. Turned out to be an excellent read, Joseph is a science writer and he looked at all the 2012 prophecy's, Mayan and other peoples, plus relgious and all manner of new discoveries tide to the whole 2012 thing. He brings no bias to the table, just an honest look at all the different aspects. There were some scientific revalations that I hadn't heard before that I found quite interesting and thought provoking.
The book was written in 2007 before the whole 2012 thing got really wound up. definitley worth a read if you can find it at your local library.

I think if you check out the internet you can probably find C.O.E somewhere on it, Iv'e run across several references to it.

I've got a stupid question for you. How do I list myself on this blog besides anonymous. Any of the other listing don't seem to work for me. They all seem to want a URL and my email address doesn't seem to work
Foster

November 6, 2011 at 6:38 PM  
Anonymous Jon said...

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

November 7, 2011 at 1:11 AM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

Foster,

I got your last post by email but didn't see it on the blog. I kept checking and finally decided you must have deleted it from the blog page. Later I remembered Google implemented a spam filter that can't be turned off (which has hurt me more than it has helped me). I found where Google puts my blog's spam comments and found your post. I clicked that it was not spam and it showed up on the blog.

Whenever I post a comment to my blog I am logged into my Google account so the identity it uses for me is the one associated with my Google account. In order to understand your problem I signed out of my account and tried to post a test comment. The identity drop-down list showed six account types, name/url, and anonymous. I chose name/url. A pop-up dialog appeared in which I typed "Jon" in the name field and my main web site's address "http://www.jdmpics.com" in the url field. It accepted my entries and when I clicked to post the comment it posted fine and showed "Jon" as the poster. So I'm not sure why it doesn't work for you. It worked fine for me.

I searched for Google help on posting comments to blogger blogs. One potential problem seemed to be when people have their browsers' cookie security set too high. I also found a person reporting "possibly your same problem" back in April 2011. There are no answers. However, like I said, when I tried the name/url login it worked fine.

Jon

November 7, 2011 at 10:57 AM  
Blogger Maizart said...

Hi Jon
Found your blog very interesting ...thank you.. I have studied ancient history, and have been following the present pole migration / space weather. nasa truths and lies... and watching some very interesting documentaries from megaliths.org... This is their youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqLPTe6eEeBP10Zhu5p-0cQ
We are the survivors from the last cataclysm, please check it out if you haven't already.
Antarctica, The true face (part 42 of the "Survivors of Atlantis" documentary )
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5drtERQsNUs

I don't know if you know Dr Paul LaViolette? He has written many books Earth Under Fire, Genesis OF The Cosmos..
What could cause a sudden geomagnetic pole shift besides the HAB Theory? We live in a galaxy ...



In 2009 Bill Ryan & Kerry Cassidy Interviewed brilliant Astrophysicist Dr. Paul LaViolette, comparing his Galactic Superwave Hypothesis with the 2017 predictions made by the Project Camelot whistleblower ‘Jake Simpson" (black project) , who said in 2008, they sent up a superluminal craft that detected the signals of the wave ... 'there is a wave' , think of it in terms of a 'wave' coming between now and 2017". This is 36 min from a more than 2 hour documentary, part 1
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2cG7rZRbOeE

This is the full interview which includes the first part:
Dr Paul LaViolette is the measured counterpart to Patrick Geryl, whose interview we have released simultaneously. A brilliant and maverick astrophysicist, Paul is best known for his research into a new theory of matter he calls Subquantum Kinetics - based on systems theory, which he studied for his PhD thesis - and for his carefully argued hypothesis, first formulated in 1983, that our galactic center periodically emits devastating waves he termed superwaves.



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oURVtGKW420

October 1, 2016 at 11:48 PM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

I have just recently become aware of Robert Schoch's speculation that solar outbursts may have been responsible for the Earth's last cataclysm. He explores the idea in his book, Forgotten Civilization: The Role of Solar Outbursts in Our Past and Future.

I've watched many Ryan/Cassidy interviews, but not the two you cite. I am not familiar with LaViolette, Geryl, or their hypotheses. Thanks for the info and links. Slowly but surely I'll get to them.

Yours is the first comment here in five years. I'm glad people are still discovering and reading this post, and I'm glad you enjoyed it. Thanks for posting!

Jon

October 2, 2016 at 9:25 AM  
Blogger Maizart said...

Correction:
The first video is the first 37 minutes from the full interview, which is more than 2 hours long, it is the same video....:)

October 3, 2016 at 3:51 PM  
Blogger Maizart said...

"Those who seek should not stop seeking until they find. When they find, they will be disturbed...".:

Mainstream Science has aa HUGE problem The problem they now have is that these alignments not only discredit Plate Tectonics as a valid theory, they also discredit the gravitational model for planet creation because these alignments also proof that Electromagnetism is what created our planet not accretion This also affects archeology and pretty much almost all the sciences because the alignments shown here favor a young Earth or a recently resurfaced Earth. more:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vB4XMrXSbDw


there is a few videos of this genie (although not the first) between the one I posted above ... and this one: Was our planet created in 6 days, what if I could prove it was ?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AoALR5-SNCY

October 4, 2016 at 8:42 PM  
Blogger Maizart said...

so, wow, he figured it out...it was a pole flip! did it last 6 days? ...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8336OuDKk4

October 6, 2016 at 11:50 AM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

I watched the LaViolette interview. He may be right but since we can't tell when a galactic wave will hit, it could be tomorrow, in a hundred years, or in a few thousand years. According to an interviewee Ryan and Cassidy interviewed earlier, the wave might hit within the next year. I guess we'll see.

I watched three Robert Yeahright videos linked to in the previous comments. Yeahright shows that if he moves pictures of the Earth's surface around he can find features from different locations that appear to line up with each other. What that means, if anything, is unclear.

October 6, 2016 at 7:27 PM  
Blogger Maizart said...

What it means to me, is that the earth as it is now, it's geography , was created by a pole shift, and locked back together magnetically with the poles in its present position but from poleshiftnews.com
Mav has created a tracker, and the shift toward Siberia but if you see his previous videos as this one: Sep 21, 2016
This pole reversal is not the same as ones before: Pole shift news, are we looking at a cataclysmic event ?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sfv2U3K-mg4

Pole shift news "data break through "!!!!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBtjNxTmdlg


its a good idea to follow Mav's new magnetometer tracker... Yeahright is onto something that happened in the past...

October 8, 2016 at 1:36 PM  
Blogger Maizart said...

well here we go:

Oct.8

I can show you how our planet was created, can science?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2YD7scUCgJU

October 8, 2016 at 1:58 PM  
Blogger Maizart said...

I posted some of your info there like old maps and fossils, Yellowstone petrified forests

October 8, 2016 at 5:25 PM  
Blogger Maizart said...

email for John Podesta (c/o Eryn) from Edgar Mitchel re meeting ASAP
“Because the War in Space race is heating up, I felt you should be aware of several factors as you and I schedule our Skype talk,” Mitchell, who died in February, tells Podesta in the mails from 2015, before mentioning a “nonviolent” alien species that wishes to share with mankind “zero point energy.”

https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/emailid/1766


https://www.rt.com/viral/362272-podesta-emails-aliens-vatican/



"You can't handle the truth"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHVP_dNM5o4

October 11, 2016 at 10:06 PM  
Blogger Maizart said...

Some Rubbish in Physics
that Needs to be Gotten Rid Of

By Dr Paul LaViolette The big bang theory is seriously flawed and incompatible with observation. In particular, the expanding universe hypothesis has been shown to make a poor fit to cosmological test data, while the tired-light, stationary universe model has been shown to make an excellent fit.
Observational evidence fails to support the existence of black holes.
With the exit of the space-time warping concept, we may also get rid of the idea of worm holes. Dark matter and dark energy are entirely theoretical constructs created to patch up the inadequacies of standard astronomical and cosmological theory. The new approach of subquantum kinetics has no need for them.
The energy conservation law is good for describing the functioning of refrigerators and a few other 20th century technologies, but the reality is that Nature for the most part violates this law. The cosmological redshift is evidence of nonconservative energy loss behavior taking place throughout the universe. The Pioneer effect, planetary-stellar M-L relation, supernova and galactic core explosions are evidence of nonconservative energy creation taking place in all galaxies throughout the universe http://etheric.com/some-rubbish-in-physics/

October 14, 2016 at 7:43 PM  
Blogger 釈情 said...

I would love to see this article updated with live links. Most of the TinyURLs are now defunct, so it is not even possible to get archives of them on archive.org

July 14, 2017 at 7:58 AM  
Blogger Jon Maloney said...

釈情, I am delighted to see people are still reading this article. In the ten years since I posted this article 23 of the links to other Internet pages have broken. I have now updated the article with new links to replace the broken ones. Thanks for your comment. - Jon

July 15, 2017 at 3:27 PM  

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